CHEM131 Week Three Notes
CHEM131 Week Three Notes CHEM131
Popular in Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Silver-Isenstadt on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM131 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by John Ondov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter Four Relevant Periodic Groups 1) Group 1A = Alkali Metals *they have a charge of 1+ 2) Group 2A = Alkaline Earth Metals *they have a charge of 2+ 3) Group 7A = Halogens * they have a charge of 1 4) Group 8A= Noble Gases * they are neutral. They don’t bond with anything. Elements are formed by nuclear reactions in stars at high temperatures. Rules for Orbital Filling 1) Pauli Exclusion Principle → No two electrons have same four quantum number. 2) Hund’s Rule → Electrons will pair only if there is no orbital of exactly the same energy available 3) Aufbau Principle → Electrons fill in this order ; 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p….etc EXCEPTIONS 1s,2s,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d,5p,6s...etc HalfShell Stability Effect → A closed dorbital is more stable than a closed 4s orbital. Electrons will fill the d orbital before the s orbital in certain atoms. Ex) Cr and Cu Notations 1) S,p,d,f notation 2) “Orbital” box notation 3) Condensed s,p,d,f notation → you take the most recent noble gas and start the notation with that in brackets. Ex) Na = [Ne] 3s 1 Valence Electrons→ Electrons involved in bonding. They are the outermost electrons. Penetration and Shielding Coulomb's Law → E = 4πE * qr 2 0 Shielding → Creates effective nuclear charge(Z ) * Inneffelectrons shield outer from full nuclear charge Penetration→ If outer electron gets too close to the nucleus then it will break through the protective shield of 1s orbital and it will experience full charge of nucleus. Elemental Properties Noble Gas→ They are inert. They have full outer quantum levels and they will not bond. Metals→ They are on the left and middle of periodic table. They are malleable, ductile, good conductors, and they will lose electrons to form c ations. Nonmetals→ They are on the upper righthand side of the periodic table. They gain electrons to form anions. They are brittle, poor conductors, and many form lighter diatomic gases. Important Periodic Trends 1) Most elements do not have an activation energy (EA) trend 2) 1A metals grow more positive down the column 3) EA is more negative as you move to the right 4) Metallic character decreases as you move to the right 5) Metallic character increases as you move down
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