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CHEM131 Week Three Notes

by: Maya Silver-Isenstadt

CHEM131 Week Three Notes CHEM131

Maya Silver-Isenstadt

GPA 4.0

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These notes cover the majority of Chapter Four. They include lecture, textbook, and discussion notes from the past week.
Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry
John Ondov
Class Notes
General Chemistry
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Silver-Isenstadt on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM131 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by John Ondov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Maryland - College Park.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter Four   Relevant Periodic Groups  1) Group 1A = Alkali Metals *they have a charge of ​1+  2) Group 2A = Alkaline Earth Metals *they have a  charge of ​2+  3) Group 7A = Halogens * they have a charge of ​1­  4) Group 8A= Noble Gases * they are neutral. They  don’t bond with anything.  Elements are formed by nuclear reactions in stars at high temperatures.   Rules for Orbital Filling  1) Pauli Exclusion Principle → No two electrons have same four quantum number.   2) Hund’s Rule → Electrons will pair only if there is no orbital of exactly the same energy  available   3) Aufbau Principle → Electrons fill in this order ; 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p….etc   EXCEPTIONS  1s,2s,3s,3p,4s,​3d​,4p,5s,​4d​,5p,6s...etc  Half­Shell Stability Effect → A closed d­orbital is more stable than a closed 4s orbital. Electrons  will fill the d orbital before the s orbital in certain atoms. Ex) Cr and Cu  Notations  1) S,p,d,f notation  2) “Orbital” box notation  3) Condensed s,p,d,f notation → you take the most recent noble gas and start the notation  with that in brackets. Ex) Na = [Ne] 3s   1 Valence Electrons→ Electrons involved in bonding. They are the outermost electrons.  Penetration and Shielding  Coulomb's Law →    E = 4πE *  qr 2  0 Shielding → Creates effective nuclear charge(Z ) * Inneffelectrons shield outer from full  nuclear charge  Penetration→ If outer electron gets too close to the nucleus then it will break through the  protective shield of 1s orbital and it will experience full charge of nucleus.   Elemental Properties  Noble Gas→ They are inert. They have full outer quantum levels and they will not bond.  Metals→ They are on the ​left and middle​ of periodic table. They are malleable, ductile, good  conductors, and they will lose electrons to form c ​ ations.​   Nonmetals→ They are on the ​upper right­hand​ side of the periodic table. They gain electrons to  form ​anions​. They are brittle, poor conductors, and many form lighter diatomic gases.   Important Periodic Trends  1) Most elements do not have an activation energy (EA) trend  2) 1A metals grow more positive down the column  3) EA is more negative as you move to the right  4) Metallic character ​decreases​ as you move to the right  5) Metallic character ​increases​ as you move down 


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