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Western Art Week 3 Notes

by: THeller97

Western Art Week 3 Notes ART 225-02


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About this Document

The notes cover the remaining of Greek Art and a good portion of Roman Art. Roman art will be finished up on Monday.
Overview of Western Art
Pitluga, Kurt W
Class Notes
WesternArt, Art, greekart, romanart
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by THeller97 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS CONTINUED  ● Classical orders of greek architecture  ○ Capital displays order  ■ Doric  ● Classic circle shape on top  ● Associated with male qualities  ● Simplest of orders  ■  Ionic  ● Volutes  ● More decorative with swirl designs  ● Associated with female qualities due to decoration  ■ Corinthian  ● Most decorative  ● Favored most by roman empire  ○ Columns are made of separate   ● Architecture terms  ○ Post in lintel  ○ Facade  ■ Front of building  ○ Entablature  ○ Pediment  ■ Triangular shape on building  ○ Portico  ● The Parthenon (448­432 BC)  ○ Idealized  ○ Designed by Ictinos and Callicrates  ○ Entirely built of marble  ■ Each part hand carved  ○ Purpose is to house statue of Athena  ○ Admired today for:  ■ Ideal proportions  ● Golden Rectangle  ■ Optical refinements  ● Lifted base and entablature to please sight  ● Columns tilt inward  ● Create visually a perfect building   ■ Abundant amount of classical sculpture  ● “Birth of Athena”  ○ Located on West Pediment  ○ Three goddesses, east pediment  ■ Slightly reclined to fill in corners of triangle  ■ Statues usually painted  ○ Dionysos, east pediment  ■ God of Wine  ○ Non Congressional building  ○ Ceremonies performed outside  ○ Cella   ■ Main chamber  ○ Phidias  ■ Designer of all statues in Parthenon  ■ Athena Parthenos (438 BC)  ● Athena known for wisdom and war  ● Much of sculpture made of gold and ivory  ● Temple of Hera II  (c.450 BCE)  ○ Paestum, Italy  ○ Archaic Period  ○ Doric order  ● The Erechtheum  ○ Rumored to be location where Athena fought Poseidon for temple  ○  “Porch of the Maidens”  ■ Faces parthenon  ■ Representing aristocratic women  ○ Caryatid  ■ Human figure used as architectural support  ​ ● Theater at Epidauros (c.350 BCE)  ○ Designed by Polykleitos the Younger  ○ Orchestra  ■ Greek­ dancing place  ○ Seating 12,000 people  ○ Also called​ amphitheater  ■ Built into side of hill  ○ Skene  ■ Background stage building  ■ Also used as backstage dressing rooms    GREEK CERAMICS  ● Amphora  ○ Small mouth compared to rest  ○ Storage of grains,oils, etc.  ● Krater  ○ Wide mouth  ○ Used for mixing  ● Kylix  ○ Smallest   ○ Used for drinking  ● Industry worked by one person sculpting and one painting and decorating  ● Exekias  ● Black for figures is glaze  ○ After firing, detail was etched   ● Red figure painting  ○ Background is black glaze  ○ Figures are raw clay color and detail painted    CHAPTER 7: ROMAN ART  ● Adopt many styles of the greeks  ● Romans flourished in architecture and engineering    Republican Period  ● Temple of Portunus   ○ God of agriculture  ○ Ionic order  ○ Engaged column  ■ Half column  ○ Worshiped outside in front of temple  ○ Development of the Arch  ■ Unlimited span between posts  ■ Needs wooden framework called ​centering  ■ Made of wedge shaped stones called Voussoirs  ● Keystone keeps all stones in place  ■ Sides of arch must be buttressed or arch will fall  ● Concrete and Brick  ○ Romans were master brick masons  ○ Concrete let romans construct massive structures  ● Vaulting systems  ○ Barrel vault  ■ Lining arches up behind another  ○ Groin vault  ■ 2 barrel vaults intersecting at right angles  ■ Most commonly used by romans  ■ X Pattern on interior  ○ Dome  ■ Most dramatic  ■ Building a series of arches around a 360 degree radius  ● “Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia”  ○ Fortuna goddess of luck  ○ Exemplifies what romans could do with concrete and how they could  manipulate it  ● “Veristic Male Portrait”  ○ Verism ­ realistic and never to be confused with idealism  ○ Ancestor worship  ■ Status in society highly depended on success of ancestors  ■ Preserves lineage image    Imperial Roman Art  ● Gaius Octavius “Augustus”  ○ First roman emperor  ○ Brought peace to roman world approximately lasting 150 years  ○ All images and statues give Augustus a youthful image  ○ Nephew of Julius Caesar  ○ Breast plate has image of enemy nation surrendering to Augustus  ○ Chariot symbolizes him as a great warrior  ● Portrait of a woman from the flavian period  ○ “Idealism  ● Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius  ○ Bronze statue  ○ Done in lost wax method  ○ Casted separately and soldered together  ○ Mistaken for Constantine  ● “Ara Pacis”, Rome 13­9 BCE  ○ Altar of peace  ○ “Pax Romana” (Augustus)  ○ Roman sculpture is narrative and factual  ○ Tellus  ■ Earth Goddess  ■ Makes ground fertile  ● “Column of Trajan”, Rome 106­13 CE  ○ Greatest military emperor  ○ Base contains cremated remains of Trajan  ○ Commemorating column  ○ Dacia became Romania since it was conquered by Rome (Trajan)  ○ Romans emphasized military, but not war scenes  ○ Artist was not concerned with naturalistic scale  ○ Located in Forum  ● Forum of Trajan  ○ Big public gathering place  ○ Indoor Markets  ■ Semi circular area  ■ Appox. 7 stories high  ■ Badly damaged groin vault  ■ Shop owner usually lived above their shop  ○ Basilica Ulpia  ■ Ulpia­Trajan’s family name  ■ Apse​ ­Semi circular space on short ends of the Basilica  ■ Gray columns are all that is left of Basilica today  ● Baths of Caracalla, Rome 211­217 CE  ○ Public bath area  ○ Had park, exercise area, shops, restaurants, etc  ○ Social centers of everyday Roman life  ○ Baths were designed to expose body to different temperatures  ○ Caldarium  ■ Hot room  ■ Dome  ○ Tempidarium  ■ Warm room  ○ Frigidarium  ■ Cold room  ■ Biggest room  ■ Groin vaults  ○ Natatio  ■ Swimming pool  ● Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), Rome 72­80 BC  ○ 157’ High, covering 6 acres  ○ Capacity about 50,000 people  ○ “Arena of Death” 


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