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# BISC104 Week 2 Notes BISC104

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These notes cover class materials from 9/12-9/16
COURSE
Principles of Biology with Laboratory
PROF.
Dr. Patricia Walsh
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
6
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Biology
KARMA
25 ?

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mtraub on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC104 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Patricia Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
What statistical tests can tell us Evaluate and compare data • • Statistical tests - examine variability - extend results to entire population - are differences between groups real or due to chance? • sampling error Why Statistical Tests - Sampling error: difference between sample and population - Statistical tests • standard error of the mean: measure of variability in sample - true mean: mean +/- standard error - Statistically signiﬁcant: an observed difference is probably not due to sampling error (chance) • < 5% due to chance • Things that can affect this - sample size - variability Standard error and Conﬁdence Intervals - Conﬁdence Interval—standard error of the mean: the range of values from a sample that has a 95% probability of containing the true population mean (average). • mean +/- standard error - As variation increases —> standard error increases The Problem of Sampling error - Sampling error: the effect of change on experimental data - Conﬁdence interval: standard error of mean Caution - Need to examine experiment statistics can’t tell us - Statistically signiﬁcant versus practically signiﬁcant Evaluating Scientiﬁc Information Primary sources - professional journal • peer review Secondary sources - books - news reports - the internet - advertisements Anecdotes - (story or personal experience) A school district is considering adopting a new math program. A neighboring district reported that students who participated in the program scored an average of 78+/-5 on the standardized math exam in June. Students who did not participate scored an average of 67+/-3. Is there a statistically signiﬁcant difference between the scores A. Yes B. No Chapter 2: Water, Biochemistry and Cells What does life require? - No simple deﬁnition of life - Characteristics of life: • cells: all living things are composed of a cell or cells • biochemistry: all living things have the same basic biomolecules • metabolism • growth and development • movement • reproduction—cell division • genetic information homeostasis: control their internal life • • evolution: (population)—changes over time Water is Essential - Properties of Water • composed of elements: hydrogen, oxygen - Basic Chemistry • Elements: simplest form of matter that can not be broken down into other substances by ordinary means - Examples: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. • Atoms: smallest unit of the elements - composed of sub atomic particles • Protons (positive), Neutrons (neutral), Electrons (negative) Atomic Structure Oxygen (O) - Nucleus: • 8 protons 8 neutrons • - Electron cloud • 8 electrons - Atomic #: 8 9/14 Electron cloud - 2 in ﬁrst level - 8 in second level - 8 in third level Atomic number of oxygen is A. 8 B. 16 C. 24 D. 2 E. 6 # of protons=# of electrons Molecule of Water - Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a bond - Water molecule: two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom - Properties of water: • polar • (electronegativity—the ability to attract electrons) • good solvent - solute - solution dissolves salts and hydrophilic molecules (polar) • • hydrophobic molecules are non polar Nonpolar molecules - electrons shared equally - no partial changes Hydrogen bonding - weak attraction between molecules • slightly negative oxygen attracted to slightly positive hydrogen An atom of phosphorous has 15 protons, 16 neutrons and 15 electrons. How many electrons are in its outermost shell? A. 2 B. 5 C. 13 D. 8 E. 7 Chemistry for Biology - Importance of carbon • bonding versatility can bond 4 different atoms at once • • carbon-containing molecules - different elements - single and double bonds Chemical bonds - depend on the atom’s electron conﬁguration - electron shells: energy levels • Covalent bonds - share • Hydrogen bonds - weak - important in water, proteins, DNA Ionic bonds • - opposite charges attract - strong 9/16 The pH scale: - measure of: • H+ concentration basic: >7 • • acidic: <7 • neutral: 7 Organic Chemistry - Importance of carbon • Bonding versatility • can bond to 4 different atoms at once Biological Macromolecules - Large organic molecules - Found in living organisms • carbohydrates • proteins • lipids • nucleic acids - Made of monomer subunits Macromolecules in Living Organisms - Carbohydrates • molecules of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen • roles in the cell—energy, structural roles, • examples—monomer = monosaccharide, polymer = polysaccharide - Proteins • molecules of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen • roles in the cell—enzymes, transport, hormones, contraction • monomer—amino acid (20 different) peptide bond (covalent) • - Lipids • molecules of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen • Hydrophobic (mostly) • roles in cell— fat, phospholipids, cholesterol - Nucleic Acids • molecules of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus • roles in the cell—genes monomer—nucleotide • • polymer—polynucleotide (DNA, RNA) DNA structure - contains oxygen - looks like a twisted ladder (double helix) - 2 strands held together by hydrogen bonds - 4 nitrogen bases - complimentary base pairing What is the type of chemical bond between the two water molecules? A. covalent bonds B. ionic bonds C. double bonds D. hydrogen bonds

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