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Biology Week 4 notes

by: emmy_rose4267

Biology Week 4 notes BIOL 107-06

Truman State

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures after our first exam
Introduction to Biology I
Daniela Ostrowski
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
  Intro to Biology  9/13 EXAM DAY    9/15  Cell Membrane  Lipid bilayer: formed when 2 sheets of lipid molecules align  Membrane permeability: how fast molecules can move from one side to the other  ­Small, nonpolar and uncharged molecules can easily cross a lipid layer (diffuse)  ­DNA does not go through a membrane  ­Amino acids can go through but go slowly, rates vary on their side chain  ­Lipid bilayers that are short and unsaturated have a high permeability while long and  saturated have a lower because it creates a longer barrier  ­Heat makes them move faster, making it not as tight so higher permeability  ­Cholesterol decreases the permeability of membrane    Crossing the Lipid Bilayer  1) Diffusion: movements of molecules and ions that result their kinetic energy  Concentration gradient: difference in solute concentration  ­Molecules get equally distributed across the membrane  ­The higher temperature makes diffusion easier and go faster  2) Osmosis: movement of water and holds back solutes  ­Water can cross the membrane quickly  Hypotonic: less ions on the ​inside the cell​, losing water from inside the cell making it  shrink  Hypertonic: has a lot of ions ​inside the cell​, water flow inside cell making it burst  Isotonic: Equal inside and outside solutions and concentration, water can flow in and out  3) Membrane proteins  ­Proteins that are amphipathic can be inserted into lipid bilayers and form channels or  pores across the lipid bilayer  ­The ends of the polypeptide chains should be polar and middle should be nonpolar  1) Integral proteins: span the membrane  A) Channels: ions can move through ion channels from regions of high  concentration to lower  Electrochemical gradient: concentration and electrical gradient  ­They are selective and can be gated  ­Passive transport powered by diffusion    B) Carrier: undergo conformational change after substrate binding (bind on one side,  protein changes, brings stuff into the cell)  ­Crossing through membrane through diffusion  C) Pump: used to transport molecules against the gradient (active transport)  ­ATP provides energy for the process (hit your foot, it is what stops it from hurting  forever)  2) Peripheral proteins: bound to the membrane without passing through it  3)          


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