Geography Week 1
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Cox on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Christopher Nunley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Outline of Lecture 1 - Geography 08/19/2016 ▯ Geography is the study of the spatial distribution of people, places, and things ▯ ▯ The four essentials of maps are title, scale indicator, orientation and legend ▯ ▯ Remote sensing is the gaining of information about an object or phenomenon with out making physical contact with it ▯ ▯ GIS stands for: geographical information system ▯ ▯ A realm is the basic special unit for the world. We will study 12 geographic realms throughout the semester ▯ ▯ The three basic criteria of a geographic realm are : physical, functional, and historical ▯ ▯ Regions are subsets within a realm ▯ ▯ The five criteria of a region are homogeneity, setting, boundaries, location, and surroundings system boundary ▯ ▯ Technology such as social media has made the world increasingly interconnected ▯ ▯ 2/3 of the world is covered with water ▯ ▯ the supercontinent Pangea existed and then plate tectonics broke the continent apart ▯ ▯ the three main types of plates processes ( plate boundaries) are : divergent, convergent and transform ▯ ▯ the “Ring of Fire” is the most geologically active region Quiz open on Monday and close on Friday ▯ ▯ Climate The long term weather for that area o Not what is occurring right now but over a longer period of time o Summarized by averages ▯ Climate and geography Where people live Politics and economics Some regions are essential defined by climate ▯ Latitude and longitude Latitude o North and south o Also known as parallels o 0 to 90 degrees o lines never cross Longitude o East and West o Also known as meridians o 0 to 180 o lines converge at the poles ▯ ▯ controls on climate Latitude o higher- cooler (less direct sunlight) o lower- warmer ( closer to the equator) Altitude o higher- cooler (rocky mnt) o lower- warmer ( death valley) Continentality o coastal areas tend to have moderate temp o locations in center of continent tend to have more extremes Climate and Earths History glaciation o how does it change the planet? ▯ ▯ Urbanization Population moving into urban areas o Taking place world wide o Most predominate in Eastern Asia ▯ Deurbanization Population moving away rom urban areas o Crime economy jobs taxes climate natural disasters (New Orleans) ▯ ▯ Language Geography 15 main language families o Indo-European: the most widespread spoken language type English, French and Spanish o A product of European colonization of the world in the 18 - th th 19 century o Most business/ trade is done in the English language ▯ ▯ Monday August 22, 2016 ▯ ▯ What is assimilation? The process by which a person or a groups language and /or culture come to resemble those of another group ▯ Religion Christianity-2 billion Islam-1.2 billion…and growing Hinduism- 811 million Buddhism-360 million ▯ What is a State? A political organized territory Administered by a sovereign government Recognized by the international community Nation, State and Nation State A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language culture ethnicity descent. A nation has no physical boarders A state is an organized political community living under a government A nation state is a state that self identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit. Economic Geography st nd rd 1 ,2 , 3 o defined after WWII ▯ First world capitalist countries U.S./ Western Europe o General prosperity and well developed ▯ Second world Socialist countries U.S.S.R/ Cuba, N. Korea o b/w prosperity and poverty Third world non communistic nor capitalist typically colonies (Africa, S. America, SE Asia) o non developed, poverty is high ▯ ▯ North America Canada and the United States ▯ ▯ Geographic Regions Coastal and interior lowlands Eastern mountains Western plateaus, mountains and valleys Water Areas and River Deltas Three major areas of drainage o Great lakes o Mississippi river system o Great basin Longest river in North America o Missouri/MS (2,341 miles) o Montana to Gulf Largest Lake in North America o Superior (32,820 sq miles) Deepest Lake in North America o Great Slave Lake (2,010 ft deep) (NW Territory) ▯ ▯ Coastal and Interior Lowlands Area of plains and lowlands b/w eastern and western mountains and the Atlantic coast Constitutes a bulk of the continent and largest landform region Most populated region Largest area for natural resources Wednesday August 24, 2016 Canadian Shield Oldest area in North America Craton Not much geological activity Continental crust that has remained relatively stable for the past 600 years ▯ ▯ Atlantic Coastal Plain Area of land at base of Appalachian mountains to the coast Broad, flat, plain gently sloping to the ocean Known as the Piedmont Landscape: Downwarping West coast is more recently tectonically active, east coast not West coast is RISING, while the East coast is SINKING ▯ Mississippi River Alluvial Valley o “Delta” 31 states and 2 Canadian provinces drain into the MS RIVER 4 longest and 10 largest river system in the world ▯ ▯ Floodplain of the MS River Most important economic region in N. America Very fertile farmland Culturally important Eastern Mountains (Appalachians) Formed from Continental-Continental convergence in Pangea (no subduction) Old…eroded Spans from Alabama to New Foundland ▯ ▯ Plateaus Zone b/w Rocky and Sierra Mountains Colorado Plateau o 7,000 feet Basin and Range- west of the Colorado Plateau o 1-2,000 feet ▯ Western Mountains Sierra-Nevada mountains coastal range cascade mountains rocky mountains(US and Canadian Ranges) Coastal Mountains (Canada ) ▯ ▯ Friday August 26, 2016 Add in from ipad ▯ ▯ Monday August 29, 2016 ▯ ▯ Kennewick Man One of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found Discovered in 1996, Kennewick Washington 9,000 years old ▯ ▯ Spanish: Fort St. Augustine Oldest permanent settlement in north America For used to protect shipping Considered a “weak settlement” by Spanish crown Acquired by united states in 1819 ▯ Continue Also settled the rio grande area Much more successful, Sante Fe 1610 Lots of missions Later became part of Mexico, 30,000 Spaniards stayed Annexed by U.S. in 1848 ▯ ▯ French First settled in the North East o 1606 port royal nova scotia o 1608 Quebec City Settled along major water bodies o Great Lakes o Mississippi River Continue Settlements based on fur trading Dispute over territory and fur rights led to war with England o 1754-1763 o French and Indian War: British Name o La Guerre de la Conquete (War of Conquest)- French name ▯ Dutch Fort Nassau, 1614 o Near Albany, NY o Fur trade with the Iroquois Indianas New Amsterdam, 1625 o Walled city of 800 by 1664 o English fleet took over and then became NYC ▯ ▯ Wednesday August 31, 2016 ▯ ▯ 13 Colonies New England Cultural Health o Plymouth, 1620 o Massachusetts Bay, 1629 Boston, 1630 Midland Colonies o Pennsylvania, 1681 Mostly agriculture o Philadelphia Southern Colonies o Jamestown, 1607 Tobacco Labor Plantations and rural society o Charleston, S.C. ▯ ▯ Urbanization, Industrialization and Settlement Frontiers 1783-1865 o independence 1783 o territory east of the MS River land acquisition 1780s-1853 by 1865 o territory 3x, population 15x, economy 20x urban population 30x rd o us has the 3 largest economy in the world (behind England and France) ▯ ▯ Public and Private Lands Homestead Act o 1862 o most fertile land had already been occupied long before “Land Ran of 1893” aka Cherokee Strip Land Run ▯ ▯ Conservation Movement Mid-late 1800’s to early 1900’s o Extermination of the American buffalo o Response to exploited resources Timber companies cut trees w/o reforestation Ranchers overgrazed the grasslands Mining companies were unregulated ▯ ▯ Megalopolis 450 mile stretch from Baltimore/D.C- Boston o includes NYC and Philly o 50 million people o 18% of the US population ▯ ▯ *NFTA-north American Free Trade Agreement ▯ ▯ Urbanization Stages Primary o Extracting of raw materials from nature Secondary o Transforms the raw materials into finished goods Lumberfurniture Steel cars Tertiary o Service economy to support production and consumption Banking Retail Transportation ▯ Fisheries 90% comes from the ocean o Esp N. Atlantic and N. Pacific US and Canada very important to world seafood market Canada exports to US=> 50% o Over fishing is a problem ▯ Forestry Forest: 50% of land cover originally USA: 45% of original forest lost o Canada only 10% ▯ Urban areas are the most efficient habitation structures for humans: Maximize the efficiency of resources (time and energy) Facilitates transportation and migration Maximize social aspects ▯ ▯ Towns and Cities Both are nucleated settlements Both have a CBD o Starkville: Main St. o Memphis= Union Ave. ▯ Water transportation Ports-NYC, L.A. , new Orleans, Galveston Rivers- freight o MS River system o Great lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway ▯ ▯ fill in Fridays notes ▯ ▯ Wednesday September 7, 2016 ▯ ▯ Guatemala Became independent from mexico in 1838 Largest population of any other central American state (over 15 million) Militarized government Exports: minerals (nickel) from the mountains, oil is predominant in the lowlands Coffee is grown in the mountains as well ▯ El Salvador independent from spain in 1821 1980- civil war many fled to the US democratic government- added manufacturing jobs poverty, crime, natural disasters exports: coffee, sugar, rice, shrimp, beef ▯ Belize British Honduras Population mostly of African decent Commercial exports: seafood, clothing industry Economy: tourism, offshore, banking ▯ Honduras Third poorest country after Haiti and Nicaragua Mostly agricultural producing o Forestry, mining, bananas, coffee, shellfish Recently plagued with natural disasters o Hurricanes Internal conflict of power makes it unstable economically Trying to expand its tourism sector ▯ Costa Rica contains 7% of the worlds biodiversity highest standard of living, literacy rate, and life expectancy of any central American country agricultural and tourism are huge o bananas, coffee, tropical fruit and seafood o also charter fishing has lost 80% of its rainforest o laws have been passed to protect the remaining 20% ▯ Panama mountainous panama canal o makes the countries economy o hundreds of millions of dollars in tolls o 14,000 ships o exports: sugarcane, rice and seafood and bananas o isthmus- land bridge ▯ Republic of Cuba Largest Caribbean island in size and population o 11.3 million people o mostly poor (still drive 1950’s car due to the embargo with the U.S.) exports: tobacco, coffee and rice also cigars(for the US at least)- due to trade embargo government: communist ▯ Haiti Poorest country in the western hemisphere Mountainous Island of Hispaniola o Shared with the DR French is its national language Plagued with natural disasters o Tropical storms o Earthquakes ▯ Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico DR- most of Hispaniola o Natural resources: nickel, silver, sugar, tobacco, coffee US took over PR from Spain o PR considers themselves their own state o PR is owned by the US with 4 million people Pay no taxes have their own constitution ▯ Bahamas Former british colony 320,00 people (mostly African decent) 3,000 islands o 700 have vegetation, 30 contain people not many resources, huge tourism ▯ Trinidad and Tobago 1.2 million people live on these islands same country- two different island lost of natural gas Exam 1 Definition of : geography culture know what the four essentials of a map are criteria of a region different types of plate boundaries- continental continental, ocean- continental know what weather and climate is most wide spread language that is spoken a cross the world is differences in climate- coastal, cities that are further inland larger-largest population cluster where is it located the topography of the lower states- what is the geology, whats in the westeast coast (only US) definition of a state 3 major areas of water drainage in North America what is the region call south east of the Appalachian mountains- piedmont tallest peak in North America which island out of four that Christopher Columbus first landed on which colonies-northern, middle and southern colonies(economy, climate etc) what is a megalopolis example: Baltimore/dc area ▯ former capital of Aztec- Mexico city ▯ economic trade agreement- NAFTA ▯ which country is the poorest in the western hemisphere ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ weather- could be defined as the immediate while ▯ ▯ climate could be defined as the average of conditions of the atmosphere ▯ ▯ areas near the coast, or large bodies of water have more moderate temperature. Areas further inland ( continentality) have more extreme temperature shifts ▯ ▯ the three controls on the climate are latitude, altitude, continentality o latitude (parallel)- north/south, 0 to 90* o longitude( meridian)- east/west, 0 to 180* high lat- (66.5- 90) middle lat( 23.5-66.5) low lat (0-23.5) ▯ ▯ Periods of glaciation and deglaciation occur and impact the sea levels ▯ ▯ Indo-European is the most widespread spoken language, and most business is done in English ▯ ▯ The largest populations tend to be near the coast or near a large body of water an the largest population cluster is in east Asian ▯ ▯ Urbanization and Deurbanization ▯ 15 main language families indo- European is the most widespread ▯ ▯ Assimilation is defined as the process by which a person or a groups language and or culture come to resemble those of another group ▯ ▯ the religion with the most following are Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism ▯ ▯ A STATE is a politically organized territory administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community ▯ ▯ 1 2t nd and 3 world countries exist: 1 general prosperity rd 3 poverty ▯ ▯ United states shares around 21% of the worlds economy ▯ Canada is <2% of the worlds economy ▯ ▯ The three geographic regions of north America are: coastal and interior lowlands eastern mountains and the western plateaus/mountains/valleys ▯ ▯ Longest rives: Missouri and the Mississippi ▯ Largest Lake: Lake Superior ▯ Deepest Lake: Great Slave Lake, NWT (North West Territory) ▯ ▯ There are several western mountain ranges: Sierra Nevada, coastal range, cascade, rocky, and coastal mountains ▯ Sierra Nevada: are not volcanic, impact weather in Las Vegas ▯ ▯ Coastal rangers formed from TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES ▯ ▯ Rockies are one of the most massive mountain ranges in the world ▯ ▯ Cascades and coastal are the most volcanic Tallest peak in north America is mt. Denali at 20,320 ft ▯ ▯ Christopher Columbus landed in san Salvador island in 1492 ▯ ▯ He was not the first man on this land however it was the Lucayan Indians ▯ ▯ Leif Erikson discovered the north American continent befoe Columbus ▯ ▯ Paleoindians come to north America from Asia around 14,000 years ago ▯ ▯ The land bridge they crossed was called Beringia ▯ ▯ The Kennewick man ( the ancient one) is over 9,000 years old Discovered in Washington, genetically linked to modern-day native Americans and well intact ▯ The poverty point “earthworks” showed how native Americans became more sophisticated and less nomadic ▯ ▯ Discovered in northeastern Louisiana, several “earthworks” discovered in Mississippi Delta due to fertile lands ▯ ▯ The oldest continually occupied city in the united states is St. Augustine, FL Est. in 1565 by the Spanish , and was to serve the Spanish empire by defending the primary trade route to Europe Us acquired this city in 1819. Now a national park ▯ ▯ Santa Fe was Est. around 1607 Was the capital of the “kingdom of new Mexico” By 1848, Mexico signed the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo giving the united states authority over parts of new Mexico, California, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and Utah, and also set the Rio Grande as the boundary for Texas ▯ ▯ French settled in northeast, near large bodies of water/river developed good(trade) relationships with native Americans French and Indian war took place from 1754 to 1763 Culturally complex: African and European influences on the islands ▯ Spanish and American influences on the mainland ▯ Overall economically poor ▯ Haiti is the poorest nation in the western hemisphere ▯ Holds 7% of the worlds biodiversity ▯ Religion is primarily Catholicism ▯ Known natural disasters Montserrat has dangerous volcano that makes half of the island uninhabitable- this area is know as an exclusion zone Mayan capitol is Mayapan Aztec capitol is modern day Mexico city Large amounts of deforestation have occurred- only 10% of the original rain forest remain Contains 12 states ▯ Rich in natural resources Gold, timber, water, oil ▯ More than 20% of the worlds oxygen is produced in South America (rainforest) ▯ Most of the population lives in Brazil ▯ ▯ Physical geography Longest continent from north to south o 4750 miles long o Chile is 90 miles wide but 2,500 miles ling o brazil is the fifth biggest country in the world The size of South America allows it to have a wide variety of climates and vegetation o mostly tropical rainforest o Argentina is one of the most diverse with 5 different climate zones ▯ Physical regions Andes mountain o Longest mountain chain o 23,000 ft high ; 4300 miles long o rocky mountains are only 3000 miles long amazon basin o 2 ndlongest river in the world o mostly located in brazil Brazilian highlands o Comprises of several small mountain ranges Pampas o The “great plains” of South America mostly in Argentina ▯ ▯ Spanish Conquest 1531 Spanish arrived (led by conquistador Francisco Pizarro) and enslaved the Incan empire used the existing empire for benefit forced them to mine the silver ▯ Conquest Continued silver mining created huge wealth for the Spanish o spread the colonies to Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay Portuguese took over indigenous populations in brazil 90% of the indigenous population died of disease and dangerous working conditions ▯ ▯ Independence from Europe:1800-1900 started by the American and French revolutions many wars during this time frame which led to several countries obtaining their independence ▯ ▯ African descendants Sugar was a huge crop in brazil Unlike the Spanish, Portugal has no slave population to help with plantation work and mining Half of all slaves brought to the Americans ended up in brazil 198 million Africans live in brazil today ▯ ▯ south American union UNASUR- union of south American nations o 2008 o est a single currency o shared defense (armies etc) o easier passport passage o infrastructure not quite effective o political posturing o fight of control of resources o some countries not involved ▯ ▯ South American Economic Geography 1 agriculture nd 2 manufacturing 3 oil ▯ ▯ SOUTH AMERICA TAKEAWAYS ▯ *south America has 12 states brazil is the largest and has the most population ( 5 biggest in theh world) rich in natural resources largest continent from N to S (4750 miles) o this allows for wide variety of climates Argentina has 5 different climate zones physical regions: Andes, amazon river basin, Brazilian highlands, and pampas (plains) Incans lives in the Andes and were vary sophisticated from 1463- 1531 until the Spanish invaded and enslaved them the native people of brazil were enslaved by the Portuguese, but 90% died due to disease population of south America is around 387.5 million, with more than half of the population living in brazil most of the SA population is along the coast Wednesday September 14, 2016 South America Urbanization city populations have grown steadily since 1950 >80% of the population is urban o fast growing cities provide opportunities o increased chance of making more money o received better edu for their children o more “things” to do ▯ ▯ Problems in South America disparity of rich and poor slums produce crime and disease very high levels of corruption o Columbia: drug trade o Venezuela: murder rate is ten times high than the U.S. (around 62 people per 100,000) ▯ ▯ Human geographic regions of south America The Caribbean North Andes West Southern Cone Brazil ▯ Caribbean North Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana Plantation lifestyle with European influence in French Guiana o Mostly live along the coast Colombia and Venezuela rich in farming ranching and mining o Population is somewhat more inland than the actual coastline ▯ Colombia Population o Andes and north interior Coffee is the largest export o Narcotics Cartels influence the political system, army and police o Fight for control of the trade network and growing of coca plants o Almost overthrew the government in 1999- PABLO ESCABAR Some cartels have their own army ▯ Venezuela 29.7 million people o mostly live in the highlands ( resources) o farming and cattle contains the worlds largest waterfall ( Angel Falls) 2 main resources o Guiana highlands o Maracaibo lowlands Largely Spanish decent and catholic ▯ ▯ French Guiana Still under French control Economy o Limited agriculture o Gold and seafood o Space industry ▯ ▯ Andes West Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Paraguay o Amerindian population o Untapped resources (oil, minerals) ▯ Peru 1,000 miles of south America west coast geography defined by 3 zones o coast, andes and rainforest 30.4 million people o ½ are Amerindian desert coast o city of lima (500 yrs old) o 40 oases which produce citrus, olives and vegetables Sierra ( andes mountains ) o Incan culture Quechua o poor population, miners o 20% of the worlds gold cooper, zinc and lead Selva( amazon rainforest) o city of Iquitos o Iquitos can only be reached by traversing the 2,300 mile amazon river ▯ ▯ Ecuador Over the equator 14.7 million people o most live in fertile valleys and long the pacific coast o leading export is oil and seafood bananas, cattle and coffee to be grown ▯ ▯ Galapagos islands Annexed by Ecuador in 1832 Biodiversity Visited by Charles Darwin in 1835 Bolivia Large Amerindian population 60% speak Spanish o no official language o 90% illiterate ▯ ▯ The Southern Cone comprised of 3 countries o Argentina o Chile o Uruguay Tied together through trade Physically diverse o Mountains west/pampas east ▯ ▯ Argentina Second in area next to brazil 41.3 million people large flat grassland o pampas farming, cattle, mostly for Europe mostly Spanish a lot of German and Italians as well 91% of the population live in urban areas ▯ ▯ Chile the longest (north and south) o along the Andes mountains mining is huge o copper exports lots of vegetables to the US lots of earthquakes (Ring of Fire) ▯ ▯ Brazil “powerhouse” of south America o resources, people and geographic area rich in farmland, tropical rainforest, untapped resources 200 million people o Portuguese o Mixed population o 13 cities with over 1 million people o catholic soccer is the national sport, hosted the Olympics ▯ ▯ ▯