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Biology 110 First Test Notes

by: Corri Chanel Oliver

Biology 110 First Test Notes Biology 110

Corri Chanel Oliver

GPA 3.42

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About this Document

These notes cover the scientific method, basic definitions of biology, and the chemistry of life.
Intro to Biology
Dr. Bushchhaus
Class Notes
Biology, Science, cells, scientific, method, Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corri Chanel Oliver on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 110 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Dr. Bushchhaus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at The University of Tennessee - Martin.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
A. Scientists Study the Natural World a. Science uses naturally occurring processes to explain naturally occurring phenomenon b. Science does not use supernatural processes as an explanation because it is not testable via the scientific method. B. The Scientific Method a. General way of organizing an investigation b. Framework to consider ideas and evidence in a repeatable way. c. Steps in the Scientific Method: i. Make an Observation based on existing knowledge and experimental results. ii. Form a hypothesis 1. Initial explanation based on previous knowledge 2. Not an “Educated Guess” 3. Must be testable based on natural processes 4. Not looking to “prove true” as science is always open to new scientific data/hypothesis iii. Experimentation and data collection 1. Some investigations are discovery based a. Example: Deciphering DNA sequence 2. Some use experiments a. Example: Demonstrating what that gene does 3. Independent Variable- What is manipulated to determine whether it influences the phenomenon 4. Dependent Variable- What is measured to determine whether it was influenced 5. Standardized Variable- Intentionally held constant for all subjects in an experiment, including the control group 6. Control- Baseline level for comparison. Tests to make sure that basic setup of an experiment did not have a negative or positive effect. 7. Sample Size- Number of organisms tested iv. Analysis and Peer Review 1. After collecting data and statistically analyzing the data, investigator reevaluates hypothesis as to whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported 2. Statistical Analysis- Investigator must decide whether independent variable affected the dependent variable 3. Statistical significance based on sample size and variation a. Ensure that the probability that results occur by chance is low. 4. If the data do not support the hypothesis, change the hypothesis and begin again. 5. If the data do support the hypothesis, publish results in a “peer-reviewed” publication 6. With peer-review other scientists evaluate validity of methods, data, and conclusions C. Theories are Comprehensive Explanations a. A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon b. Differs from a hypothesis in that: i. Theory is broader in scope ii. Hypothesis is tentative, theories reflect broader agreement/ repeated testing with same results iii. A good theory is predictive- Darwin predicted the existence of a then unknown pollinator based theory A. Biology is the scientific study a. To be considered alive i. Organized ii. Use Energy iii. Maintain Internal Constancy iv. Reproduce, Grow, Develop v. Evolve- Change Over Time B. Life is Organized a. Hierarchical Pattern i. Structures within structures ii. Cells-Tissues-Organs-Organism-Population-Communities- Ecosystems-Biosphere iii. Cell- Smallest unit of life. Lowest organization level iv. Biosphere- Total of all life on Earth and its atmosphere b. Life has emergent properties i. Parts interact ii. Results in new, complex functions that are not evident in individual parts. iii. Example: 1. Cardiac Muscle Cells- Cardiac Muscles-Heart- Cardiac System-Keep all cells supplied with Oxygen. C. Life Requires Energy a. Constant stream of energy required to maintain organized life b. Energy from the environment is used to: i. Build new structures ii. Repair old structures iii. Reproduce iv. Run the chemical reactions in cells D. Life Maintains Internal Constancy a. Homeostasis- State of internal constancy or equilibrium b. Example: i. Your body must maintain an internal temperature of 37 degrees Celsius or 98.6 degrees Farenheit ii. When it’s cold, we shiver iii. When it’s hot, we sweat E. Life Reproduces Itself, Grows and Develops a. Reproduction in two basic ways i. Asexual- organisms produce offspring virtually identical to itself by cloning (with Mitosis) 1. Benefit- A lot of offspring in a short amount of time 2. Cost- Little genetic variation ii. Sexual- genetic material from 2 individuals unites to form a third individual (with Meiosis) 1. Benefit- Tremendous genetic variation 2. Cost- Takes two individuals to produce offspring 3. Example- widespread among plants, fungi, and animals iii. Some organisms can produce either way depending on the conditions. iv. Almost all multicellular organisms reproduce sexually at some point in their lives 1. Otherwise , populations that are entirely asexual go extinct except Bdelloid Rotifers F. Life Evolves a. Evolution- change over time in the frequency of traits/genes/alleles b. Some organisms are more success in their environment than others- Thise more suited to their environment survive longer/reproduce more often i. Example- Adder snake is virtually invisible in its environment c. Adaptation- inherited characteristic or behavior that enables an organism to survive and reproduce successfully in a given environment d. 3 Important Facts i. Populations produce more offspring than can survive ii. Reproduction and mutation result in genetic variability iii. Individuals with an advantageous inherited trait will survive longer, reproduce more often, frequency of individuals with that trait will increase in the population- evolution caused by natural selection e. Natural Selection- enhanced reproductive success of certain individuals from a population based on inherited characteristics i. Individuals with better combinations of genes survive longer and reproduce more often than individuals without that combination of genes ii. These individuals make up more of the population over time. f. Evolution results in a change in genetic makeup of a population. A. Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass a. All solids, liquids, and gases B. Mass- the property of matter that determines the force required to impart a given acceleration to an object. C. First Law of Thermodynamics- energy can be transformed, but not created or destroyed D. Second Law of Thermodynamics- the total entropy of an isolated system increases over time (for biological systems, energy is lost from a system as heat in chemical transformations) a. Entropy- Breakdown, Decay, Movement toward disorganization E. Element- Substance that cannot be broken down into a different substance a. Designated by 1 or 2 letter symbols b. Of the 92 Naturally occurring elements, about 20% are essential to living organisms c. The body is mostly made up of Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen d. Trace elements- elements that are necessary to living organisms but at much lower levels i. Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Potassium, Sodium, etc… F. Atom- Smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element G. Molecule- Two or more atoms joined together of same or different elements H. Compound- Substance in which relative proportions of two or more elements never varies a. Example: Water- always two times as much Hydrogen as Oxygen b. Compounds are special kinds of molecules I. Structure of Atoms a. Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons b. Protons and Electrons have electric charge c. Neutrons are neutral d. Protons and Neutrons are together in the nucleus e. Protons- positive charge f. Electrons- negative charge g. All atoms have an equal number of proton and electrons h. Atoms have no overall charge because the protons and electrons cancel each other out i. Atomic Number- Number of Protons (Electrons) j. Mass Number- Number of Protons+Neutrons k. Isotopes- elements that differ in the number of neutrons l. All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons and electrons, but some have a different number of Neutrons


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