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Biology 1107 Chapter 8 Notes

by: Ashlyn Parsons

Biology 1107 Chapter 8 Notes Bio 1107, 02

Marketplace > University of West Georgia > Biology > Bio 1107, 02 > Biology 1107 Chapter 8 Notes
Ashlyn Parsons

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About this Document

Chapter 8 notes, on next test
Principles of Biology
Micheal Arterburn
Class Notes
pathways, that, harvest, chemical, Energy




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Parsons on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1107, 02 at University of West Georgia taught by Micheal Arterburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of West Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 8  7 kJ per mole for each bond broken  ATP- from breakdown of glucose- fat produces the most  ATP-(one phosphate bond breaks)-AMP= 7kJ per mole  Energy is capacity to do work or change o Potential- stored energy o Kinetic- energy of movement  Metabolism- sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism  Anabolic Reaction- making (building) something from simpler things  Catabolic Reaction- breaking down things  Main storage molecule of glucose- glycogen o Anabolic reaction  Thermodynamics- changing energy into heat o Law 1: Energy is neither created nor destroyed o Law 2: Once converted, some is unable to do work  No energy transfer is 100% efficient  Entropy: all over the place (randomness) ex: steam or gas  Enthalpy: total energy of the system o Enthalpy(H)= free energy(G) + entropy (S) or H=G+TS or G=H-TS  Kelvin- F to C to K o F= (C)1.8+32 o C=(F-32) x 5/9 o K=C+273.15  Change in energy (Delta G) measured in Calories (kilocalories- 1 Cal=1,000 kilocalories)  Free energy (G)- difference in products and reactants o Delta G=Delta H –TdeltaS o – Delta G: spontaneous (goes without stopping)- free energy is released o + Delta G: non-spontaneous (add heat, etc.) - energy is consumed o No G: nothing happens  Magnitude of Delta G depends on o Delta H- total energy added (+) or released (-) o Delta S- change in entropy- large changes makes Delta G more negative  Exergonic: release free energy (-Delta G): ATP -> ADP Get energy  Endergonic: consume free energy (+ Delta G): ADP-ATP use energy  Chemical equilibrium: Free energy=0 no net reaction  Delta G values closer to 0 are more reversible  ATP can phosphorylate (donate phosphate groups) to other molecules  Hydrolysis of ATP: o ATP+H2O—ADP +Pi + Free Energy o Free Energy= -7.3 to -14 kcal/mole  Formation of ATP (endergonic): o ADP+ P+ free energy—ATP +H2O 2  Activation Energy: amount of energy to start reaction o Unstable form: transition state intermediate o Activation energy can come from heating- more kinetic  Reactants are called substrates  Enzyme substrate complex: E+S—ES—E +P  Enzymes lower energy barrier for reactions. Equilibrium and free energy doesn’t change Ex. 8.10  Memorize table 8.1 slide 49  Concentration of an enzyme is usually lower than concentration of a substrate  At saturation, all enzyme is bound to substrate- maximum rate  Inhibitors o Irreversible- permanently inactivates enzyme, changes active site, competitive or non-competitive o Reversible- prevents substrate from binding-attacks active site o Competitive- competes for active site, reversible: increase substance concentration, less competitive and may release from active site  Allosteric: different shape o Active form- binds substrate o Inactive form- binds inhibitor  Allosteric regulation: effector molecule binds to subunit to change its shape either inhibits or activates  Metabolic pathways: First reaction is commitment step 3 o Feedback inhibition (end product): “too much”- final product acts as non-competitive inhibitor, shuts down pathway o Enzymes are most active at particular pH  Increase in pH and temp-denature o Isozymes: enzymes that catalyze same reaction but have diff prop ex: temp 4


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