Psychology Chapter 3 Notes
Psychology Chapter 3 Notes Psych 1560
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception Sensation: Activating the sense organs through a physical energy source Perception: Sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli Stimulus: Response in a sense organ produced by energy Psychophysics: Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and psychological experience of the stimuli Thresholds Absolute threshold: Smallest intensity of stimulus that must be present to be detected Noise: Background stimulation; interferes with stimuli Difference threshold: Smallest level of added or reduced stimulation Weber’s law: Difference that is just noticeable is a constant proportion of the intensity of initial stimulus Sensory Adaptation Adaptation: Sensory capacity adjustment after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli Structure of the Eye Cornea Pupil Light passes through pupil and enters lens Accommodation: Lens focusing light by changing its thickness Retina o Rods o Cones Processing visual images takes place in visual cortex of the brain Feature detection: Neurons activated by visual stimuli having specific features Color Vision and Color Blindness Trichromatic theory of color vision: three kinds of cones in the retina which respond primarily to specific wavelength ranges Opponent-process theory of color vision: Receptor cells are linked in pairs and work opposite to each other Sensing Sound Sound: Air molecule movement brought about by source of vibration Eardrum: Part of ear, vibrates when sound waves hit it Inner ear: Changes the sound vibrations into form transmittable to the brain Place theory of hearing: Different areas of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies Frequency theory of hearing: Entire basilar membrane vibrates in response to a sound Semicircular canals: Three inner ear structures containing fluid that sloshes when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement Smell Sparked when molecules of a substance enters the nasal passages o Olfactory cells are the receptor neurons of the nose o Pheromones are chemicals secreted into the environment that produce reactions in members of the same species Taste Gustation: Sense of taste Skin Senses Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain Gate-control theory of pain: Certain nerve receptors in the spinal cord lead to specific brain areas related to pain Sensory Interaction Synesthesia: Exposure to one sensation, evoking an additional one Multimodal perceptions: Brain collects info from individual sensory systems Processing Top-down processing: Perception guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations Bottom-up processing: Progression of recognizing and processing info from individual components of stimuli, moving to perception as a whole Depth Perception – ability to view three dimensions and perceive distance Binocular disparity: Difference between images seen with either eye (helps determine distance) Monocular cues: Permit obtaining a sense of depth and distance with one eye - Motion parallax - Relative size - Texture gradient - Linear perspective Motion Perception Apparent movement: Perception of a stationary object moving Perceptual Illusions Visual illusions: Physical stimuli that consistently produce perception errors Subliminal Perception - Perception of messages we have no awareness of - Aka “priming” - Ex: written word, sound, smell
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