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ACBS 160 Week 4 Notes

by: Jason Zismann

ACBS 160 Week 4 Notes ACBS 160-D1-001

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ACBS 160-D1-001 > ACBS 160 Week 4 Notes
Jason Zismann
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Hello everyone, included are detailed notes from this week (week 4). They go over topics involving our early relations with dogs and how we have used selective breeding to form dogs based on our ne...
Hum+Anml Interl Dom-Pres
Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis
Class Notes
Dogs, Domestication




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Zismann on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ACBS 160-D1-001 at University of Arizona taught by Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 191 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Lecture 12:  “Mane Points” o The Russian silver ox breeding (artificial selection) experiment is important for several reasons:  1. Artificial selection for a trait can happen quickly  2. Unintentional traits appear  3. Reveals mechanisms of domestication traits  Russian Silver Fox experiment o Began in 1950s in Novosibirsk, Siberia o Selected foxes due to their close relations to dogs & there were many of them being bred on fur farms in Siberia o Started with ‘neutral’ (neither aggressive nor friendly, made about 1% of foxes) foxes from these farms, there was no prior history of domestication – essentially wild animals o Over 50 years, they used 10,500 foxes as parents & had about 50,000 children o 1. Artificial selection for a trait can happen quickly  Successful selection for ‘tame’ temperament in a few generations th  ‘taming’ produced by 4 generation (tail wagging)  By 6 generation: pups approached humans, whined, whimpered, licked o 2. Unintentional traits appear  Dog characteristics (floppy ears) were not selectively bred for but occurred anyways  Fox domestication shows us how this happened unintentionally  Bred foxes started barking, having floppy ears and multi colored coats  Some traits that were not beneficial in nature (like spots in dark coat) were evident when humans controlled breeding because they were “cute”  Foxes started to respond to human gestures like pointing and eye movement  One wolf-dog DNA sequence difference is also found in humans with William-Beuren syndrome  People have: o Elvin features o Are super gregarious (overly friendly and trusting of strangers) o Parents say child’s behavior resembles that of a dog o 3. How are domestication traits produced?  Foxes are selectively bred – to search for “domestication” genes – by comparing the genotype (genetic makeup) of aggressive and non-aggressive foxes  Cross fostering experiments: test for genetic and environmental contributions to domestication traits  Temperament-Neurochemistry link  Changes in temperament, behavior, appearance are linked to gene-influence hormone and neurochemistry (lower cortisol, reduced adrenal glands & adrenaline, adrenaline influence on coat color, higher serotonin for taming) Lecture 13:  “Mane Points” o Dogs with features like modern domesticated dogs present in archaeological record by 15-20,000 years before present o Several ancient dog’s breeds evident after 10,000 years before present in art work of ancient civilizations o Modern dog breeds produced in past 200 years  Origin of distinct dog breeds o Genetic data from modern wolves & dogs & archaeological evidence, confirm dogs arose from separate stocks of European & Asian wolves o Domesticated dogs – with morphological skeletal & dental features of present domesticated dogs – appear by 15-20,000 years before present in different parts of Eurasia and soon thereafter in North America o Three distinct sized dogs at 8,000 before present from Denmark o Before humans mastered selective breeding techniques, distinct dog lineages appeared in different geographic regions through self- selection o Humans in different parts of Eurasia developed diverse needs for dogs, such as: hunting, transport, protection, herding, etc. o Through self-selection over several hundred years, human needs became matched to the relevant dog characteristics (ex. Run speed, body size, scent detection) o Difficult to keep wild canids (wolves & related carnivores) from opportunistically interbreeding with self-domesticated breeds as long as humans were still hunter-gatherers o Numerous small dogs found in archaeological sites in France dated to 15,000-11,000 years before present o Beginning around 10,000 before present images of dogs appeared in many parts of the world o In ancient Egypt ~6500-5000 years before present  Worship of gods in their animal form were extremely popular, they were bred in large numbers on farms for purpose of ritual sacrifice o In dynastic Egypt ~4500 years before present  Greyhound-like dogs also popular for hunting  Variety of dogs present in art (different sizes, tales, & ears) o 2 main breeds in Mesopotamia ~4000 years before present  Greyhound-like dogs for hunting  Mastiff-like dogs for hunting, herding, and war o Modern breeds were derived from genetically homogenous population produced through extensive interbreeding of formerly independent dog lineages that were brought together as a result of extensive human migration/trade o Genetically same existing breeds appear to be older (~2000 years before present) than others and have been referred to as “ancient breeds” or “basal breeds”; these include: Akita, Basenji, Saluki, & Finnish Spitz  But it could be they are more closely related to wolves because of interbreeding with wild wolves after domestication Lecture 14:  “Mane Points” o Rise of pedigree dogs o Dog selective breeding: benefits (desirable traits) vs costs (undesirable traits)  Rise of pedigree dog: breeding for perfection o Change from pal & working partner to status symbols & fashion statement began in late 1800’s with:  Founding of American Kennel Club or AKC (dogs for sport hunting) among the well to do  Dog shows soon followed increasing popularity of pure breeds o Pure bred dogs became widespread after world war 2 with GI bill making purchasing a house with a yard more affordable  Dog selective breeding: benefits vs costs o Major benefits of pedigrees:  Specialized skills & utility to humans  Desired traits reliably produced o Major Costs of pedigrees:  Inbreeding causing major morphological, physiological, & neurological problems o Inbreeding is the mating together of closely related dogs (mother/son, father/daughter, siblings) o Inbreeding increased homozygosity of traits  Good for reliability  Bad because it expressed hidden genes that cause diseases o The 400 or so dog breeds of today come from small pools of sires (parents) over last 200 years  Hereditary diseases are the rule, not exception among purebreds: 350 disorders “hidden” within the 19,000 genes of dogs  Examples:  All 20,000 AKC registered Portuguese Water Dogs trace back to 31 dogs; 90% coming from only 10 dogs!  Cancer o Bernese mountain dog: nearly 50% die of cancer; compared to only 27% of all other breeds  Hip dysplasia: o Common in German shepherds as a result breeding for low sloping rear ends  Train wreck example: o Bulldogs  Selected for skull deformity: this deformity leads to birth problems, snoring, sleep apnea, & labored breathing


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