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FSC 340- Week 4

by: Chelsey Smith

FSC 340- Week 4 FSC 340

Chelsey Smith
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover finding sufficient recurve in loops and their rules along with typelines and deltas.
Dr. Dean Bertram
Class Notes
forensics, Fingerprints, loops, Delta, typeline, SufficientRecurve
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 340 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Dr. Dean Bertram in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Fingerprinting in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
FSC 340- Fingerprinting September 13, 2016 Loops  FBI definition: type of pattern in which one or more ridges enter upon either side, recurve, touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and core and then pass out upon same side entered.  3 Basic Requirements for a loop o There must be a sufficient recurve o Only one delta o Must have at least 1 ridge count and the ridge count must cross at least one looping type ridge  Sufficient Recurve o Consists of the space between the shoulders of a loop, free of any appendages which abut it at a right angle outside of the recurve o The innermost sufficient recurve is needed o To check for this: place a ruler on the parallel lines and place a dot where each one begins to curve. S=shoulder- where the parallel lines turn inwards; G=good/sufficient recurve  Sufficient Recurve Rules o Shoulders of the loop are where the recurving ridges definitely turn inwards/curves o An appendage is an attachment of a connection o Appendages striking the outside of a recurve at a right angle will spoil the recurve, meaning there is no loop and the analyzer moves to the next innermost loop outside of the previously inspected non-loop. o To test for appendages:  If you can smoothly trace the appendage along the loop, it’s good  If there is a dot on top of the sufficient recurve in question, it’s still good (dot being defined as no taller than it is wide)  An appendage may form a new loop  Use a clear ruler for best results  Be sure to label S and G on each inspected loop FSC 340- Fingerprinting September 15, 2016 Typelines  Typelines- are the two innermost ridges which start or go parallel, diverge, and surround the pattern area  Typelines are used to help find deltas- they are generally found on the opposite side of ridge flow  There are not always two continuous ridges. When there is a definite break in a typeline, the ridge immediately outside of it is considered as a continuation (tends to surround pattern line)  Check for sufficient recurve first  Bifurcation- cannot be a typeline- resembles a Y  Divergence- Can stem from bifurcations to become typelines  The arms of the bifurcation on which the delta is located can never be used for typelines  Angles can never be used for typelines. They are formed by an abutting of one ridge against another Delta  That point on a ridge at or the nearest to the point of divergence of two typelines, and located at or directly in front of the point of divergence  A delta WILL be on a friction skin ridge  Where a delta can be placed o Dot o Bifurcation o Recurving of Ridges o Meeting of two Ridges o Short Ridge o Ending Ridge  Delta Rules o If you have more than one bifurcation, pick the one closest to the core (not at or in front of) o Bifurcation takes preference over any other choice (dot, recurving ridge, etc.) o Deltas may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between typelines towards the core, but at the end nearest to the core o A dot may be used as a delta- it has no direction o The delta may not be located at a bifurcation which does not open towards the core


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