His 106: Week 4 Notes
His 106: Week 4 Notes His 106
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Jared Heath Roll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Urban Crucible Overall theme: Cities are dirty and brutal, but are also filled with promise and attractions. Cities are storm centers of American civilization. Growth of Cities 1870: 18 cities with more than 100,000 citizens 1900: 38 cities with more than 100,000 citizens o Including 3 with more than 1 million New York, Chicago, Philadelphia Between 1870 and 1900, 11 million people moved to American cities with the hope of the opportunity of employment. The cities reached out to people with promises, and people listened. The rapid growth was astounding and unprecedented – Chicago doubled in size. The cities attract people from rural areas with the promise of industrial capitalism. People moved to the city to escape the farm and their parents. o The cities were centers of great economic power. This is where the profit seeking ambition happens. Living conditions were poor because they couldn’t support the rapid growth. However, the promise of individual advancement was so powerful, people didn’t care. Before the 1880s, immigrants came mostly from Africa, Scandinavia, and Germany. After 1880, immigrants starting coming from Italy, AustrioHungarian Empire, Russian Empire, Greece, Turkey, Poland, and Japan. o They moved to America to escape the loss of opportunity, or due to political or religious persecution. o The promise of American capitalism burned bright. Immigration was made possible by the steam ship. Not only did it make it possible, it encouraged immigration. Ticket agents were sent out throughout the European countryside encouraging them to move to the U.S. with offers of employment. Important note: The Statue of Liberty was erected during this time, in 1886. New Immigrants America had never seen large amounts of people from these areas before. They were different – they weren’t Protestant and they didn’t speak English. Immigrants settled in cities. They had to find people who spoke their language to find jobs. This led to ethnic communities within cities. It is said that America was a melting pot, with indistinguishable Americans, but that isn’t true. There were communities (ethnic immigrant neighborhoods) that resembled their home countries. These communities reflect the diverse array of humans coming to the U.S. for opportunity. Ethnic communities function through church and the workplace, but most importantly, saloons. Saloons became key institutions in American life. Immigrants came here to look for new social connections. Here they could get loans, cash their paychecks, get means, and hear news about jobs – all in the language of their home country. Immigrants could come to saloons seeking reminder of where they came from and who and what they left behind. Chicago In the 1890s, clean business districts were created, according to their economic functions. Around the central zone (where all the manufacturing was taking place in the heart of the city), suburbs were developed. The majority of workers lived in the central zone. However, the city increasingly supported middle class white collar workers. These workers were more likely to live in the suburbs. This spatial differentiation was made possible by trolley cars and subways. o The spatial differentiation was emphasized by economic differentiation. That is to say, where you lived showed your economic standing. American Cities Take Shape Business and residential zones are created (downtown, industrial areas, suburbs, etc.) Working class and middle class are separated Recreation is developed – such as shopping o People began buying consumer goods, which opened a new world of consumer delight. o Basement bargains took place for the poor and immigrants. Amusement parks are developed – Coney Island was the first. People were beginning to enjoy their free time. Urban Problems Bad sanitation Bad streets Bad housing Inadequate fire and police protection Unclean water Disease becomes a fact of life Cities govern very weakly. The police department was generally controlled by the biggest ethnic group. The police don’t pursue citywide control. Cities are dangerous but exciting places. New Fears Fear of foreigners, especially Catholics, Jews, and Asians. o People believed that Catholic immigrants were dangerously loyal to the Pope, and therefore would not be able to assimilate. 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1886: American League was created. They were dedicate to rooting out Catholics. 1887: American Protection Association was created. They aimed to defend true Americanism, to “preserve America for Americans” 1894: Immigration Restriction League was created. They called on the government to stop the social and cultural change being brought on by immigration. 19061907: Japanese Exclusion Act They came up with new ideas of “scientific racism” to explain their fears. They started to apply the logic of natural selection to immigrants. They applied scientific theories as to why they ranked immigrants in superiority: Nordics were the best, then the Alpines (Hungarian, for example), then Mediterranean, and finally those of African descent. o They saw the new immigrants as being inferior to the old ones. They believed the new immigration was a threat. o Lothrop Stoddard wrote about his views in his book “The Rising Tide of Color – The Threat Against White World Supremacy” People were riding the tiger of capitalism – they were holding on by the ears. They couldn’t let go lest they be devoured. This time period was defined by harsh conditions, but also fantastic promise. The New South After the Reconstruction, the South was at the cutting edge of industrial capitalism. The Civil War left the South devastated economically, largely due to the fact that it led to the emancipation of 4 million southern slaves which caused them to lose the vast majority of their wealth. After the war, the South began thinking about how they were going to rebuild. The leading concept focused on the New South, which embraced modern industry and technology. o The New South was a term popularized by Henry Grady, an Atlanta newspaper editor and regional booster, to describe the development of an industrial capitalist economy and society in the years after 1877. In 1886 he said: “The New South presents a perfect democracy…a social system compact and closely knitted, less splendid on the surface, but stronger at the core. After 1876 the Democratic Party pushed the Republican Party out of power across the region using violence and fraud. o One Democrat said there has “not a fair count in Mississippi since 1875” Railroads Railroads are key to the New South economic rise. They prioritized railroad development by granting large amounts of land and tax incentives to railroad companies. They did this believing that the railroads will give birth to other industrial developments. The South convinced northern textile industries (cotton manufacturers) to relocate to the Piedmont region in the South – directly into the growing web of railroads. This sparked industrial development. Coal and iron ore was found in northern Alabama (Birmingham). Alabama was now able to invest in iron and steel factories. This gives Alabama an advantage over states that lack these resources. Alabama then became a greater engine of wealth. Mississippi had trees that had never been cut. Railroads came in as logging trains. The New South reaches into the countryside to pull out resources. In Mississippi they find rich soil, and are able to develop plantations. The Delta Land and Pine company takes over 2 million acres of land, which is then owned by London stockholders. o Colonial economy – serving the economic needs of outside powers. The railroads go in to Kentucky in search of coal. Resource extraction is how the New South develops. Cash Crops Crops that can be sold to textile industries (such as cotton) Worked by tenant farmers and sharecroppers, who are farmers who don’t own the land and are paid with a share of proceeds of the crop. Economic Change The economic change creates confusing social changes. Small towns who previously had no connection are now linked together to form social networks. This disrupts the sense of community they used to have, and causes fear and anxiety. Young African Americas who were born free are now coming of age, and are less respectful of whites than their parents were. This behavior was interpreted as a threat. Lynching peaks in the 1890s. Lynching consisted of cruel punishment without due process that usually ended in death. Those who were lynched were usually young African American men. These punishments transformed into a public form – they transformed into community events that occurred in broad daylight. Rise of Lynching in 1890s Social and economic disruption of New South capitalism. White fear of disorder, of loss of racial privileges, and fears of economic and social competition with African Americans, especially during the 1890s Depression. The lynchings became increasingly violent – people were often burned alive or with body parts cut off while they were still alive. This rapidly turned into a Southern phenomenon. Politics Grover Cleveland (D) was elected President in 1884 – he was the first Democratic president since the Civil War. He won with his votes from solid south states, meaning they all voted for the same party. Benjamin Harrison (R) was elected President in 1888 – this gave the Republicans federal power over the South again. In 1890 the Federal Elections Bill (Lodge Force Bill) was proposed. It was meant to stop white Democrats from using violence and fraud to defeat the Republicans in the South, which would ensure the elections were fair. o It never became law. Mississippi State Constitution (1890) A state convention was held, with delegates elected by county officials. o 134 white delegates, 1 black delegate o In 1890, 58% of Mississippians were African American They wanted to make legal moves to disenfranchise African Americans from voting. They wanted to impose: o Poll tax (costs $2 to vote) o Understanding Clause (Literacy Clause – must be able to read to vote) o Convicts barred (If charged of misdemeanor, can’t vote) The convention approved the constitution – it was never approved by the state electorate. Results of MS Plan of 1890 Black voters in 1868 – 86,973 – 96.7% eligible Black voters in 1892 – 8,922 – 5.9% eligible Black voters in 1964 – 28,500 – 6.7% eligible All other southern states adopt similar methods between 1891 and 1908. There was total democratic control in the 1900 election. Confederate Commemoration United Confederate Veterans (1889) United Daughter of the Confederacy (1895) J. B. Gordon: Confederal Governor of Georgia – KKK Leader, U.S. Senator, railroad investor The Confederate Commemoration worked in two ways: o To facilitate national reconciliation among whites o To share a single victory In 1906, Confederate dedication on Ole Miss campus o Wanted reconciliation with the North, while still keeping white symbols of the South Plessy v Ferguson (1896) Williams v Mississippi (1898) Discussion In discussion, we created study questions that combine concepts covered in lecture, as well as from this week’s readings, and talked about them as a group. Below are a few that we covered. 1. How was the Old South different from the New South? Economically, the New South wanted to become more like the North. For example, they began creating urban centers. 2. How did immigrants experience American life? Immigrant communities represented their own mother countries. For example, saloons became the common meeting ground for immigrants. Here, they could speak in their native language, and hear news from their mother countries. 3. What was the main influence for the difference in wealth between Alabama and Mississippi? Alabama had coal an iron ore, and Mississippi had trees. 4. What was the main factor that led to lynching in cities? The generation of African Americans who were born free were less respectful of whites than their parents were. Whites saw this as a threat. 5. Why did Josiah Strong think cities were bad for the country? Strong saw how the poor didn’t have much say in their jobs, and viewed this as a loss of freedom. He focuses mainly on immigrants, and blames them for limiting job options. 6. How was the 1890 Mississippi Constitution approved without approval from the state electorate? It was never made law, but it was put in to practice. It was approved by the delegation. 7. What legal moved did the Mississippi Constitution make to disenfranchise African Americans? They imposed a poll tax, an understanding clause, and banned convicts of misdemeanors from voting. They wanted to eliminate the influence of African Americans, in order to promote White Supremacy.
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