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Nutrition, Week 4

by: Smetana Larson

Nutrition, Week 4 nsc170

Marketplace > University of Arizona > nsc170 > Nutrition Week 4
Smetana Larson

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These notes cover lecture from week 4
Nutrition Food and You
Dr. Ricketts
Class Notes
nutrition, nutrition science, intro to nutrition
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smetana Larson on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to nsc170 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Ricketts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Nutrition, Food, and You  NSC 170C1  Dr. Ricketts  Monday 9/12/16    Bolded words are key words  Important concepts, noted by professor, are highlighted  *clicker questions which could be test questions     Organization of Your Body​ (know the order!!)  1. Cells  a. 100 trillion  b. Specialization  2. Tissues  3. Organs  4. Organ Systems  5. Organism  Overview of Digestion  1. Humans are omnivores  2. Digestion  a. Mechanical  b. Chemical  * The muscular movement used to cause consumed food to travel one way down the GI tract is  called: ​Peristalsis  * The gallbladder and pancreas secrete digestive juices into the: ​small intestine  They are accessory organs so food doesn't pass through them  * The gallbladder secretes ​bile ​the pancreas makes and secretes digestive enzymes into small  intestines (liver makes bile)  3. Absorption  4. Major digestive organs  a. Mouth  b. Esophagus  c. Stomach*  d. Small intestine*  e. Large intestine*  5. Accessory organs  a. Teeth  b. Tongue  c. Salivary glands  d. Liver*  e. Gall bladder*  f. Pancreas*  6. The Mouth  a. Beginning of digestion  b. Teeth and chewing  c. Salavary glands   d. Saliva  e. Enzymes  i. Amylase breaks down starch  f. Tongue  i. Taste buds (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami)  ii. Smell  7. Esophagus  a. Pretty much just transports food through p ​ eristylus   8. Stomach  a. Lower Gastroesophageal sphincter (L ​ ES​): keeps things in the right compartment  b. Stomach  i. Gastric juices (HCl and enzymes)  ii. Mucus (protects stomach)  iii. Chyme  ​ ­> name for mix of food, saliva, mucus   iv. Muscular movement (mechanical digestion)  c. Pyloric Sphincter  i. Dietary influence  ii. Regulates the rate at which chyme enters the small intestine  9. Small intestine (majority of digestion and absorption)  i. Duodenum  ii. Jejunum  iii. Ileum  b. Absorption:   i. Villi  1. Capillary network ­> water soluble nutrients go directly into the  bloodstream ­ once carbs/protein is broken down into individual  molecules they go here  2. Lacteals (lymph vessels) ­ fat usually goes here first because  there's more space, then enters bloodstream in the chylomicrons  3. Portal Vein takes things to the liver  ​ which makes sure everything  is good to move on to the rest of the body  ii. Absorptive Cells  10. Large intestine  i. Colon  ii. Rectum  b. Absorption: sodium, potassium, water  i. Fiber goes here because we can’t absorb it  c. Fecal Matter  11. Intestinal bacteria  a. Bacteria in the large intestine  i. Fermentation: this makes good bacteria with fiber breakdown  ii. Nutrient production  iii. Flatulence: methane gas from fiber breakdown  b. Antibiotics ­ kills bacteria (good and bad)  c. Probiotics ­ comes from fermented food (ie. yogurt, kombucha)  d. Intestinal infections  i. Starvation, antibiotics, and emotional stress  e. Good bacteria supports your immune system, can be consumed through food  and is cultured in the large intestine  12. Digestion system summary  i. Major digestive organs  1. Mouth  2. Esophagus  3. Stomach*  4. Small intestine*  5. Large intestine*  ii. Accessory organs  1. Teeth  2. Tongue  3. Salivary glands  4. Liver*  5. Gall bladder*  6. Pancreas*    Wednesday 9/14/16    *The enzymes breaking apart food particles is an example of: C ​ hemical Digestion  *What e ​ mulsifies​ (combines it with water) dietary fat in order to prepare it for digestion: B ​ ile  ­​This allows the enzymes that digest the fat to get to it   *The majority of digestion occurs in the stomach: False (around 90% of digestion and  absorption occurs in the s ​ mall intestine​)  1. Digestive “Issues”  a. Constipation and frequency  i. Dietary fiber and water intake  ii. Exercise  iii. Changes in routine, psychological disturbances  b. Diarrhea  i. Severe cases  1. Dehydration ­ because you’re losing water  2. Nutrition loss ­ because there isn't time for absorption  c. IBS and UC (irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerous colitis)    d. Constipation  i. Chronic constipation can cause   1. Hemorrhoids  2. Diverticula  2. Heimlich Maneuver  a. Epiglottis​ closes your airway while you swallow food so you don't choke  b. Food blocks airway, you need pressure on the diaphram  3. Gallstones  a. Symptoms  b. Development  i. Chronic high fat diet causes this  ii. Bile is stored in the gallbladder and if there’s too much fat in it, it cause  little pieces of calcified fat to create gallstones  iii. Affects bile secretion  c. Treatment  4. GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  a. Symptoms  i. Frequent acid reflux  ii. Nausea  iii. Gagging  iv. Chronic dry cough  v. Hoarse voice  vi. Sphincter is relaxed  b. Risk reduction  i. Antacids  ii. Lose excess weight  iii. Do not lie down following a meal  iv. Do not overeat  v. Avoid smoking  vi. Avoid food that causes the problem  c. Increased risk for esophageal cancer  5. Peptic ulcers  a. Occurrence  i. usually the mucus protects the lining of the stomach from the HCl that  breaks down food  b. Symptoms  i. Burning pain in upper abdomen  ii. Vomiting fresh blood  iii. Black tarry stool  c. Increased risk  i. H. Pylori infection  ii. Excessive stomach acid  iii. Smoking  iv. Alcohol consumption  v. Prolonged use of NSAIDS  vi. Family history  vii. Stress  6. Colorectal Cancer  a. Development  i. Abnormal cell growth and proliferation  b. Signs and symptoms  i. Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting  ii. Blood in stools  iii. Stools are narrower than usual  iv. Frequent gas pains, cramps, bloated  v. Loss of weight without trying  vi. Tired all the time  *You should know what each disorder is caused by and how they affect the body  7. Remarkable machines  a. We are made of trillions of cells each with specialized jobs  b. We eat to get energy and building blocks from food nutrients  i. We measure how much energy is in each food with calories  c. Food is broken down into ATP  d. Energy metabolism  i. Catabolism ­ breaking down  ii. Anabolism ­ building up  iii. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ­ this is the form of energy our cells use  e. Aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism  i. Aerobic uses oxygen (you must have oxygen to use energy from proteins  and fats)  1. Only cells with mitochondria can do aerobic metabolism  ii. Anaerobic is without oxygen (only carbohydrates can do this)  1. Any cell can break down carbohydrates  f. Biological fuels (macronutrients ­ protein, carbs, fats)  *gallstones will affect a person’s ability to have normal ​fat ​digestion  Bile emulsifies fat for enzymes to break it down  *the process of excess calorie intake being converted into fat is an a ​ nabolic p ​ rocess  You are b ​ uilding (anabolic) f ​ at   Catabolic​ is losing fat or muscle mass (breaking it down) 


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