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Historical Geology, Week 2

by: Carrie Notetaker

Historical Geology, Week 2 EAES 240

Carrie Notetaker
GPA 3.526

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Week 2 9/12/16 - 9/15/16 Minerals, atomic structure, rocks
Historical Geology
Dr. Michael Kruge
Class Notes
Geology, Historical Geology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrie Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAES 240 at Montclair State University taught by Dr. Michael Kruge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Earth and Environmental Sciences at Montclair State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 2 Lecture 1 9/12/16 Chapter 1 Earth System History (continued) Materials and Processes  Rock ◦ interlocking or bonded grains of matter typically composed of single minerals  Mineral ◦ naturally occuring inorganic solid element or compound with a particular chemical  composition and a characteristic internal structure  Outcrop/exposure ◦ rocky surface that stands exposed and is readily accessible for study Rock Cycle    “stone” = stone lithification = turns to stone Igneous rocks  Formed by cooling molten material to the point of hardening  ◦ composed of interlocking grains, each consisting of a particular mineral  magma ◦ molten material that solidifies into igneous rock ▪ external magma: lava  extrusive igneous rock (ex: basalt) ◦ hardens at Earth's surface ◦ cools quickly  ◦ small crystals  intrusive igneous rock ◦ hardens within earth ◦ overlying rock (overburden) slows cooling  ◦ large crystals  texture refers to grain size ◦ ex: igneous – how big are the crystals Sedimentary rocks  material deposited on Earth's surface by water, ice, and air  weathering ◦ collective term for chemical and physical processes that break down rocks at Earth's surface  Erosion ◦ processes that loosen pieces of rock and move them downhill  formed from: ◦ pre­existing rocks ▪ sandstone (sand) ▪ shale (clay) ◦ skeletal debris ▪ limestone (calcite – calcium carbonite – CaCO )3  all of these are the same thing  ­ interchangeable words ◦ chemical precipitates ▪ evaporties  rock salt  stratum (singular ­ strata) ◦ tabular layer of sediment accumulated in discrete episodes ◦ bed ◦ layer Metamorphic rocks  formed by alteration of pre­existing rocks under high pressure and temperature  alteration occurs without melting rocks Rock Units   formations ◦ unit of rock formed in a particular way ◦ formally named, often for a nearby geographic feature ▪ Kaibab Limestone  member ◦ smaller rock unit ◦ subdivision of formation  group  ◦ groups of formations (several related formations) ◦ super groups (groups of groups) Steno's Law  Nicolas Steno (1669) ◦ Principle of Superposition ▪ oldest strata on bottom of undisturbed sequence ◦ Principle of Original Horizontality ▪ all strata are horizontal when they form  ◦ Principle of Lateral Continuity ▪ strata originally flat, unbroken expanses ▪ interrupted by erosion  laws apply to both sedimentary and volcanic rock  formed through empirical observation ◦ going out to find data and provable facts Cross cutting relationships  principle of intrusive relationships ◦ intrusive igneous rocks are always younger then the rocks they invade  principle of components ◦ fragments within a second body of rock are older then the second body of rock Unconformity  substantial interval of time when erosion occurred rather then deposition – geologic time gap  Angular unconformity  Disconformity  Nonconformity – igneous/metamorphic rock  under sedimentary   Actualism (Uniformitarianism (old term))  “the present is the key to the past.” James Hutton (scottish 1726­1797)  natural laws don't change, however rates and intensity of processes may Fossils  remnants of ancient life, thousands to millions of years old  fossil succession ◦ date by comparing fossils to other fossils throughout the world ◦ William Smith Geologic Time Scale  developed using ◦ biostratigraphy (fossil succession) ◦ radioactive decay  divided into ◦ phanerozoic ◦ precambian/archean  cambrian ◦ oldest rocks with conspicuous fossils  mass extinction events mark time boundaries Rock Time Stage Age Series Epoch System Period Erathem Era Eonothem Eon  Rocks formed during the Jurassic Period of time compromise the Jurassic System Week 2 Lecture 2 9/15/16 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Short list of minerals that commonly make up rocks: Rock Forming Minerals Mineral  geologic definition of a mineral is specialized ◦ naturally occuring ◦ solid ◦ definite chemical composition ◦ ordered atomic arrangement (“crystal lattice”) ◦ inorganic (compounds with C and H are typically organic)  doesn't include “minerals” in the nutritional sense!  Is ice a mineral? If it is naturally occurring then yes.  Is glass a mineral? No  ◦ glass is defined as a solid with NO ordered atomic arrangement ◦ glass cools too quick for atoms to order and crystallize Rock  a naturally occurring consolidated mixture of minerals or mineral­like substances ◦ coal is a rock, but not a mineral ◦ granite (rock) – biotite, quartz, and feldspar (minerals) Atoms (6  grade definition is all we need) ­10  a rigid sphere about 1 angstrom in diameter – angstrom = 10 m  at the center of the atom is a nucleus which is comprised of protons and neutrons which  contains most of the mass of the atom ◦ Protons (+, mass 1), neutrons (=, mass 1), electrons (­ , negligible mass)  Atomic structure ◦ nucleus ▪ protons and nutrons ▪ electrons orbit around the nucleus in discrete shells ◦ two forms of stability ▪ no chage ▪ full outer shell  Isotopes ◦ same number of protons but different number of neutrons ▪ carbon 13 (neutrons + protons) =  C13 ◦ unstable nucleus due to too few/too many neutrons is radioactive ▪ will change to somehting else by changing the charge of the extra component (by  ejecting a beta particle which is what makes radioactivity dangerous)  1C turns to  N  Ion ◦ an electrically charged particle composed of an atom that has gained or lossed an electron to another atom ▪ Cation + ▪ Anion ­ ◦ Important ions in minerals Cations Anions Na (+1) Cl (­1) chloride K (+1) O (­2) oxide Ca (+2) S (­2) sulfide Mg (+2) SO 4(­2) sulfate Al (+3) CO 3(­2) carbonate Si (+4) Fe (+2 or 3) transition metal ◦ ◦ Noble gasses are inert – valence = 0 ◦ covalent bond: shares e­ ◦ ionic bond: exchange e­ creating a charge that attracts the atoms ◦ diamonds have a carbon tetrahedron structure ◦ halite has cubic atomic structure  Glass ◦ solid with disordered atoms  crystalline structure is based on atomic patterns How do we know?  X­ray defraction used to determine the crystal lattice


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