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Archaeology Week 2 Notes

by: Sam Hipe

Archaeology Week 2 Notes AN220

Marketplace > Arcadia University > Sociology/Anthropology > AN220 > Archaeology Week 2 Notes
Sam Hipe
GPA 3.13

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About this Document

These notes cover the differences between academic archaeology and CRM archaeology as well as going into the details of what the profession of archaeology entails
Intro to Archaeology
Moran, Kimberlee
Class Notes
archeology, Science, academic, CRM, profession
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sam Hipe on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN220 at Arcadia University taught by Moran, Kimberlee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in Sociology/Anthropology at Arcadia University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Archaeology Week 2 9/13/16 Academic Archaeology  “Academic” archaeology tends to be the traditional methods of archaeological research presided over by  university professors. Research is conducted in annual field seasons over long periods of time (decades) and  published in the form of a book  Formal research depends on socially constructed frames of reference that incorporate both explicit and  implicit value judgements about what is important to study and what is credible interpretation o What does your society value and find important to research?  What is Archaeological Research? o Includes the construction of large over­arching research questions and the use of a range methods  and sources of evidence to answer them o Artifact analysis, historical records, excavation of sites o Theories developed through research may be overturned as new evidence comes to light or as future  researchers make better arguments  The Academic Life o Research  Usually conducted in the summer (with no pay)  Expectation to get grant funding  Publish!! o Teaching  Only counts for 30% but takes the most time and has the most accountability o Service  Sit on committees  Be involved in conference  Grant Funding o Only the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Endowment for the Humanities  provide federal funds for archaeological research o Success rates are low  8% get funding from NSF o Most professors fund field work by creating field schools  Students pay o Some private funds but usual have very specific criteria  Field vs. Non­field work o Field work provides the opportunity to be the first to document a site and recover its artifacts o High risk though – what if you don’t find anything; all the responsibility is on your shoulders; lots of risk around taking students into the field and/or a foreign country o Other research can be conducted away from the field such as reviewing past excavations, literature  research, or research on artifacts o Risks include incomplete records, problems finding what you’re looking for, and items/documents  maybe scattered across the world  Getting a site o Long­standing, university or museum projects o “inherit” from former supervisors/mentors o Decide on a location and gain access to it o Luck  Careers in Academic o Undergrad > Graduate > Post doc > Tenure­track o Museum researchers o A few independent research institutes o Principle Investigator (PI) on a grant o Field school, bachelor’s degree, and PhD – minimum requirement Cultural Resource Management (CRM)  “CRM refers to the processes and procedures used to manage, preserve….”  What are Cultural Resources? o Include the evidence of culturally constructed or modified resources that indicate past activities or  accomplishments of humans o Building structures, objects, landscape features, etc. o Once destroyed, these data are removed from our cultural record  CRM Archaeology o Not only archaeology, but also architectural history, geological surveys, repatriation of native and  indigenous resources, art, and other cultural materials o Archaeology is destructive by nature – data collection and proper documentation are crucial o Typically broken down into 3 phases, each with a distinct goal and impact on cultural resources o Typically in response to construction projects  Public vs. Private o Federal law dictate that agencies take into account the effects of their projects on cultural resources o Is applicable only on federally funded projects and on state/federal lands (in the UK, all construction requires archaeological investigation) o Does not apply to private properties unless state law dictates it o Outcomes?  If nothing of cultural significance is found, project proceeds without interruptions  If archaeological material is found and deemed significant, mitigation is  needed and  construction plans continue after  If significant enough, the construction could be stopped all together  Phase 1: Research and Survey o A: Research­historical records, maps, existing geographical and geological info, previous  archaeological excavation o Surface surveying­topographic changes, visible feature changes, visible artifacts o Ground penetrating radar (GPR) – noninvasive assessments o Geological probing o Sampling via STPs (shovel­test pits) and necessary radials  Base line with transects that create a grid  Pinflags at each intersection o Goal: to determine in the APE holds anything of cultural significance and if any potential site is  present   Phase 2: Investigation and Excavation o Larger­scale excavations including 1m x 1m units, 5’x5’ units, and concentrated STPs to determine  the boarders of a potentially significant area o Determines the limits of the potential (or registered) sites, evaluates the sensitivity sites (high  sensitivity = greater artifact density expected) o Goal: to test and evaluate if the archaeological site is eligible for inclusion in the National Register  of Historic Places (NRHP) o If NRHP eligible, the site will warrant further investigation to determine if mitigation is necessary  Phase 3: Data Recovery o Once a site has been registered with NRHP, in depth investigation can begin on site o Distinct borders have been established and the recovery of artifacts and data can commerce o At this point, the scale and significance of the site is finalized and construction can either resume or  a mitigation plan will be put in place to preserve the site o Goal: “Mitigate the adverse effect by recovering significant data or information prior to disturbance  or destruction”  NHPA and Section 106 o National Historic Preservation Act of 1966  Established:  Laws protecting cultural resources  Roles of SHPO  Federal funding for the protection of cultural resources  National Register of Historic Places  Expanded the role of the National Parks Services in aiding with CRM o Section 106 if NHPA require that all federal agencies consider the impact of projects on cultural  resources within agencies given jurisdiction  Careers in CRM o Field Technicians > Crew Chief > Principle Investigator (requires Master’s) o Lab technicians and managers o Architectural historian  Still standing structure and assess it o Geologists and geophysicists o Surveying and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) o Wetland biology and environmental science o Field school and bachelor’s degree – minimum requirement The Profession 9/15/16  Quick Review o Academic   Undergrad > Grad (PhD) > Post doc > Tenure track o CRM  Field Technicians > Crew Chief > Principle Investigator o Both require field school  Professional Societies o Important to join whatever your profession o Annual conference  Chance to see the rock­stars in the fields  Opportunity for you to present  Latest government standards and certifications  Exhibitors  o Networking  Making professional friends o Trade magazine  What’s happening in the field  Low­risk way to get published o Peer­reviewed journal o Lobbying activities o Sometimes other member benefits o It’s where you learn the latest news!  Societies o Society for American Archaeology (SAA) o Archaeological Institute of America o Society for Historical Archaeology o American Anthropological Association (AAA) o Chartered Institute for Archaeologists  Have set standards for best practice  Based in the UK  The Register for Professional Archaeologists o Listing of archaeologists who have agreed to abide by a code of conduct and standards of research  performance who hold a graduate degree in archaeology, anthropology, art history, classics, history,  or another germane discipline and who have completed a thesis or dissertation (or its equivalent) that addresses a substantive archaeological research question. o Receive a certificate and RPA after your name o Provides continuing education credits o Certifies field schools o Maintains a directory of members o There is no union for archaeologists  Finding Field Schools o o ShovelBums o RPA site o Social Media (Twitter and LinkedIn)  Finding Jobs o Job pages on society websites o HERC (Higher Education Recruitment Consortium) o o Archaeology fieldwork o ShovelBums


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