Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes HIST 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalie Lanik on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Diane Margolf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization, Modern in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Western Civilization From Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 4 Hellenistic Greece 09/14/2016 ▯ Chapter 4: King Philip II of Macedonia Macedon rises as a solidified kingdom under the rule of King Archelaus Internal conflict after his death and until King Philip II King Philip II Reorganized the Macedonian army Silver/gold mines funded the military reconstruction The army became a career o Troops were paid regularly and were expected to be ready for combat at any moment in time o This was different from the Greeks who separated military life from personal life—those who served in the army were only really involved when the polis was threatened otherwise they pursued other careers of interest o More specialization and unification o New phalanx formation o Longer spear o Specialized training o Philip fought with his troops in order to strengthen the bond with his army Conquered Thracians and Illyrians (northern Greece) Expanded to southern Greece toward Athens o In Athens Demosthenes delivered speeches to Athenians criticizing Philip as a barbarian o At the battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Philip conquered the united Greek force Philip strategically conquered city states as he expanded Rather than forcing them to abide by his laws only and discard their political tradition and culture Philip made an alliance with the Greek poleis o This was called the Corinthian league under his leadership ▯ Chapter 4: Alexander The Great After King Philip II died Alexander the great continued his father’s legacy Became king of Macedonia at 21 y/o Tutored by Aristotle Followed his fathers footsteps and invaded Persia By 334 BC Alexander had control of Asia Minor By 332 BC he had control of Levant and Egypt In Egypt Alexander visited an oracle and was declared divine This helped him established credibility as a king in the eyes of the Egyptians He established power in the new city of Alexandria The Battle of Issus Alexander conquered Persia and executed The Great King of Persia: Darius III Burned down the city of Persepolis A symbol of revenge for the destruction of Athens by the Persian Invasion in 490 BC Over the next five years alexander conquered land throughout Parthia all the way to India By the time his troops convinced him to end his campaign before attempting to conquer India he was King of Macedonia Pharaoh of Egypt Lord of Asia The Great King of Persia He died in Babylon in 323 BC at 33 y/o Alexander placed a satrap in each new conquered territory—this was a provincial governor Named many conquered territories after himself These locations promoted trade between Europe and Asia Hellenism is defined as the spread of Greek culture throughout Alexander’s conquest Particular spread of Greek language The most common Greek language became the lingua franca of the ancient world Language of the new testament and other religious works Founded many libraries throughout different cities Information of biology, botany, and geography Promoted the spread of knowledge Alexander died without an heir to his throne which caused the empire to divide Alexander married Roxane who was still pregnant by his death It is not known if the baby survived After his death there was a lot of civil unrest and 3 kingdoms emerged and brought back monarchy: The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt The Seleucid dynasty in Asia The Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia They were dominate for the next 300 years There was a lot of conflict over territory/authority Some kings tried to unite and enforce their rule by incorporating local customs Greeks were forced to follow policy with a little bit of room for autonomy Hellenistic warfare got bigger and more professionalized War elephants Naval ships Catapults Hellenistic kingdoms were reliant on urban center where trade flourished Cosmopolitanism emerged No longer emphasis on identity to ONE polis Alexandria was one of the most popular and thriving cities Constant wars between kings Unpredictable rule Chapter 4: Hellenistic Culture Sculptors o Introduced emotions to the art of sculptors o Hellenistic art focused on personalization o Idea of the individual Philosophy o Individualism o Questioning the best way to be happy and attain tranquility o Stoicism: followers believed in the inevitability of fate and that thru logic and reason one could attain virtue Comes from the Greek word for “painted porch” (where doctrines would be discussed) Founder Zeno of Citium Virtue for the stoics: involved in politics to better society Stoics did not fear death Believed that people lived the same life over and over again in a neverending cycle o Epicureanism: in order to achieve ideal happiness one must live a life of pleasure Founded by Epicurus Pleasure defined as: not the absence of pain but free from passions and desires Pleasure in moderation o Philosophy of the Cynics Rejection societal notions Cynic = meaning “like a dog” Dogs have no shame Most famous cynic was Diogenes (Socrates gone mad) Apparently he defecated, masturbated, and fornicated in public to abandon restrictions of society Hellenistic Philosophy differed from classical because it focused on the individual rather than the community Science o Kings motivated scholars to teach and research o Separation of science and philosophy o This era has been called the Scientific Revolution of Antiquity Mathematics o Famously taught by Euclid o Archimedes of Syracuse – calculation of pi Developed mechanical devices Astronomy o Aristarchus of Samos Proposed first heliocentric model of the universe with the sun in the center o Eratosthenes Calculated circumference of the earth Cstesibius invented pneumatics o Innovative advancements weren’t for the practical application to society Many of these helped strengthen the Hellenistic military Greek Religion o Diversity o The Olympian Pantheon Consisted of 12 Greek gods and goddesses o Gods were thought to live on mount Olympus o Gods: Zeus, Apollo, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Dionysus o Goddesses: Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Demeter, Artemis, Hestia o Ancestors were worshipped o Festivals held in honor of the Pantheon o Olympic Games held for Zeus every 4 years o Contact with the gods through oracles and sanctuaries Hellenistic Religion o Greek practices continued and other rituals were added o More personal religious aspects o Mystery Cults: secret groups who’s followers were directed how to proceed into the afterlife and find salvation Eleusinian Mysteries One of the longest lasting mystery cults o New Greek gods incorporated into religion o Identifying different religious gods as the same but with different names Hellenistic Judaism o Conflict in region of Judaea under rule of Antiochus IV o Troops seized the temple of Jerusalem which sparked a rebellion led by Judas Maccabaeus o Jews reclaimed their temple in 164 BC o Celebrated with Hanukah o Jews established the Hasmonean Dynasty and ruled independently until Rome ▯ Chapter 4: Hellenistic Culture Part II Women in the Greek world Status depended on when and where a woman lived Hesiod = Greek poet Portrays women as the root of all evil (myth of Pandora) Homer depicts women as both the cause of war and the element that’s worth fighting for Spartan women had greater freedoms than Athenian women Women saw a rise in visibility = still viewed as inferior though Freedoms in marriage, land ownership, lifestyle, wealth Women could SIGN MARRIAGE CONTRACTS! o Meaning they were given LEGAL RIGHTS Proof of this through preserved information The wealth in and economy allowed breathing room from traditional constraints THEIR FREEDOMS DEPENDED ON WHERE THEY LIVED ▯ ▯
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