New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 103 Week 3 Notes

by: Lucas Kinsey

Biology 103 Week 3 Notes BIO 103-002

Marketplace > George Mason University > Biology > BIO 103-002 > Biology 103 Week 3 Notes
Lucas Kinsey
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes for Bio 103 week 3 at George Mason University. Included is notes for chapter 19 textbook readings and the accompanied lectures.
Introductory Biology I
Gwendolyne Fondufe
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Biology I

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucas Kinsey on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 103-002 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Fondufe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.


Reviews for Biology 103 Week 3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
Lucas Kinsey Biology 103 Week 3 Notes Chapter 19 The evolution of Vertebrate Diversity Craniates: All chordates that have a head - First evolutionary step of the chordate lineage Vertebrates: Next evolutionary step of a backbone and a skull Bones are mostly non-living material, but grow with the body because living cells secrete this material Tetrapods: Jawed and limbed (two pairs of limbs) were the first vertebrates on land - Amniotes: tetrapods that lay terrestrial eggs Hagfishes and lampreys are the most primitive surviving craniates - Lampreys are considered vertebrates because of its notochord Jawed vertebrates occurred around 440 million years ago One hypothesis says that hinged jaws evolved by modification of skeletal supports of the gill slits in primitive fishes Chondrichthyans: sharks and rays that have flexible cartilage skeletons Lateral Line System: a row of sensory organs running along each side that are sensitive to changes in water pressure and can detect vibrations cause by nearby swimming in the water Ray-finned fished: - Ex: Tuna, trout, goldfish, ect… - Skeleton made of bone Operculum: A protective flap that covers gills Ray-finned fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates with over 27,000 species Land vertebrates developed during the Devonian period Ichthystega: believed to be one of the first fish to be able to move on land First tetrapods were not fish with lungs that gradually grew legs, but rather the neck and limbs grew first and they would just raise their heads out of water for air Amphibians: Tetrapods that were the first official terrestrial species of vertebrates Amphibians are lowering in numbers due to habitat loss, climate change, and pathogenic fungi Carboniferous Period was known as the age of the amphibians Reptiles, birds, and and few mammals are amniotes Amniotic Egg: Reptilian egg with extra embryotic membranes - Amnion: Fluid filled sac surrounding the embryo - Yolk Sac: Contains a rich store of nutrients for the embryo - Chorion and Allantois: Enable the embryo to obtain oxygen from the air Ectothermic: Animals that absorb external heat rather than generate much of their own Birds descended from reptiles Features that help birds fly: - No teeth - Only a few small vertebrae - Feathers that have hollow shafts - Bones have honeycombed structure Endothermic: when animals use heat generated by their metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature Birds have a highly efficient circulatory system to support their high metabolisms Distinguishing traits of mammals are hair and milk glands 3 Major lineages of mammals: 1. Monotremes – Egg-laying mammals 2. Marsupials – Mammals with a pouch for young 3. Lutherans – Mammals that bear fully developed live young Placenta: a structure in which nutrients from the mother’s blood diffuse into the embryo’s blood Anthropoids: Have fully opposable thumbs Paleoanthropology: the study of human origins and evolution Hominins: Species that are more closely related to humans than to chimps The brain grew throughout evolution Homo Neanderthals: Most recent ancestor of Homo Sapiens All humans have ancestors that originated in Africa - Increase in population probably cause the species Homo Sapiens to expand to other parts of the world Human skin reflects adaptations to varying amounts of sunlight - The lighter the skin cells the less melanin there is in the skin


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.