U.S. History 1877- present Week 3 lecture notes
U.S. History 1877- present Week 3 lecture notes AMH2020 0003
University of Central Florida
Popular in U.S. History 1877-Present
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Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2020 0003 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. James Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1877-Present in History at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
The Rise of Business: The cities are flooded with cheap labor During the civil war thereis ahugetransformation in the economy. Youusedtohave to go downto thevillage blacksmith togetahorseshoeforyourhorse. Butwhen thewarrolls aroundthey need millionsofthesamethingandthatmodelobviouslywillnotbesubstantial. Sothesehuge companies arisethatcanmass-produceallthese things. After the civil war they don’twantthem togo out ofbusiness. Nowthepeoplewhomadethe uniformswant to sell you clothing. RevolutionizesAmerica New developmentsbetween1860 and1890 –440,000new patentsare issuedfornewinventions Andof course,once you invent somethingitleadstootherinventions Progress is sogreat that by1890, the governmentsaysthat,“everything thatisevergoing to be inventedhas beeninvented.” And in thesenate, thereisanefforttoshut down thepatent office. A. Edwin Drake–oil industry B. Roebuck–co-owner ofSears-Roebuck Company–once the largest retailerin the world C. AlexanderGraham Bell–given creditfor the invention of thetelephone(AT&T boughtBell South) D. Thomas Edison–Inventor ofeverything E. IsaacSinger– sewing machine F. Gustavus Swift–Revolutionizes the meatindustry–prior tothisyouwouldhave been eatinga lot of grains Oil: Initially there wasnorealuse foroil. People trytouseitinvariousforms– WesternPA-you could buy ahouse andfindoilinyourbackyard. They triedto convincepeoplethatCrude Oilwouldcure ailments Drakehad the connection withthe railroadbecauseheis aconductor–backin the late 18, early 1900’s, being a conductor on a railroad was a big deal. They sort of becamean earlyFedExfor packagesas wellaspeople. And conductorshad passesthatthey couldtravel free anywhere His travelstakehimtoTitusvillePAandOilCity–foundthatif yourefine crudeoilit can be used asa illuminant. Itcan be usedtolight oillamp. Priorto this wewereusingwhale oil. Hiscontribution wastodig out wellsto pumpouttheoil,whichhad,toabilitytoturnoffat night. JohnD. Rockefeller comes along and heneverownsa singleoilwellbutheownsarefineryin Cleveland. Heusesillegal and legal methods tocorner peopleandthat’skindof howhe built his empire. Hecontrols the refining processthroughhis company,theStandardOilCompany,andcan set the price. He has total control over theindustry Hemeasures freight carsfrom thePennsylvaniaRailroadanddesignsbarrelsthatfitexactly on thosefreightcars. We still use the“Rockefeller barrel”today. Thisleadstoamonopolyand him puttingeveryoneoutofbusinesswhichleadsto the Sherman anti trustact. Peoplesee him doing this andtrytostart allkindsofmonopolies–for thingslike sugar,beats, etc. The Sherman anti-trustactisstill very muchin action today. OfficeDepotwantedtotake over Staples just amonth ago and thegovernment shutthat downbecausetheyforesawit would create a monopoly. Alot ofitdepends onthe president– whetherheisfororagainstbig businesses. So sometimesthe law works and sometimesit doesn’t. Inthecase ofRockefeller, hejustbreaks hisonecompanyapartinto7companiesand managestostill oversee and own all of those. Labor Unions: They callfor: 1. Income tax 2. 8-hour workdays 3. Equal pay for men and women (All the way backin1869)–the catchisthat if youown asteelmilland thejob entails lifting hundredpoundsteelbeams, you’re goingtogo with men. You wouldneedtwowomento dothe samejob. Solets say that men make 5$ aweekandwomenmake2.50$. If women get equal pay that would be 10$a weektogetthesame job done. It was atrick to getthe women out of theworkforce. Clothingisnow affordable to the massesafter comingupwitha sizechart during thecivilwar Ifyouown a general storeand you’re nowreceivingmassamountsofproductsyouaregoingto wanttoexpand your store. Thismeansthat you needtohireemployees. They previously operatedona bargaining system. Butthe nation goestoa“fixedpricesystem.” Sonowyoucan hirea bunch ofemployees. The cash register isalsoinvented. The first huge departmentstore isopenedby R.H. Macy. Adepartmentstoreiswhereyou cango in and buy anything–books, collectables,clothes,food,cars,houses,insurance,etc. 1886-Coca-Cola–contains cocaine Pharmacists invent all themajor soft drinks Lotsofcompaniestrying to look big andsubstantial H.J. Heinz Made 57 different productsthenandtothisday,still makes 57 Heinz–alsobegan canning soup Riseofotherstores–Woolworth5&10-cent stores At onepoint,K-martwas thelargest store Proctorand Gamble, J.C.Penny,etc. We alsostartmakingproducts recognizable–huge illiteracyrateinthecountryat that point. Color association with products– Thingsdidn’tused tobe packaged–there usedto bebigbarrels(say youneedflour)and peoplewould getabag and justgetitstraight from thebarrel. Martha–comes up withwhat is knownas a“trademark”bystickingapictureonthebagof flour Riseofcigarettes–lead bya man namesJames Buchanan Duke Before hecomesalong cigarettesareextremely expensive–they have to berolledbyhand- and most peoplesmoked piped or cigars–rememberthiscountrywasfoundedon tobacco** Invention of the cigarette-rollingmachine–they aresoldalmostexclusivelytomen–itwas actually illegal for womentosmokein public Marketedthemby putting pictures ofnakedwomenandbaseball cardsin theinsides ofthe box. For the first half-century,searsis justa catalog not aphysicalstore Cash on Delivery system “COD” The problem isthat ifsomeone orders amassamount ofitemsandtheygettothehouse or businessand they decide notto orderthem,whatdoyoudowiththem? Sotheygetto Searsand back tothe railroadline toshipthesewatchesback andSearsdecides to buythem and ship a telegramoutto advertise thesewatches/sellthem atthestation Money-back guarantee–used by searssothe dealwasthatyoupaiduponorderingwith money back guarantee whichissomethingwestillusetoday Roebuck–had nothingto do with the sears company–hewas onlyhiredtorepairwatches. Searsthinks, lets order all kindsofproducts,startacatalogandsenditouttothousandsof people. Buthe needsa businesspartnerto doso. Roebuck backs out–Sears keepsthe name withthebusinessbecausehewantedtolookbigger thanhe actually was. Bellmade a fortuneon the metal detector Thomas Edison –themost famousinventor Hebegins asakid 10 years old selling newspapersontrains Hewouldgeton atrain in Chicago andthen ride toDetroitandwalk throughthecarsselling Chicago papers HehadADD and couldn’tconcentrate–working asa telegraphofficer–causesthishuge trainwreckand isfired. Heeventually inventsthe electronicvotingmachine. Youpullthe lever andit registersyour vote.–No one wantstobuyhisinventionbecause then they couldn’t rig the vote. Hecanseea need for a productand then inventit. Heinventsthestockticker–every banker andstockbrokerin Americahastohaveoneintheir office Peoplewere initially reluctanttobuythem,so hewouldleasethem.–Theyspitoutthestock pricesona streamof paper. (Westilluse thistoday–itswhatrunsacrossthebottom ofthe TV screen) Hesets upthefirst research laboratory withthe moneyhemade offof that^ Phonograph machine–music eventually comesalong Edison doesn’tinventthelightbulb–heinventsthe filament inside Invents asystem ofelectricity–sets upa battle betweenEdison,Tessla,andGeorge Westinghouse Hissystem iscalled DirectCurrent–itisa battery Alternating Current–whatisused topower thisbuilding Tessla andWestinghousewantalternating current–muchmorepractical Singer–invents a specialty store–initially forsewingmachines Buyingoncredit–revolutionizesAmerican Industry Termsto Know: JohnD. Rockefeller Standard Oil Company EdwinDrake Yellow Dog Contract Knights of Labor HaymarketRiot Sherman Anti-Trust Congress of Industrial Organizations Industrial Workersof theWorld EllisIsland GustavusSwift
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