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BIOS Week 3

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIOS Week 3 BIOS 1000

Kaitlyn Meinzer

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Animal Diversity
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 4, September 12 ‣ Coral Symbiosis • Many tropical stony corals rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates for food • Symbiosis refers to organisms that are dependent upon one another to survive ‣ Symbiotic dinoflagellates • Live within the tissue of coral polyps • They can be seen by the color they give to the coral ‣ Symbiotic relationship: Benefits • To Dinoflagellates: ◦ Protection from predators ◦ Kept close to sunlight ◦ Receive nitrogen from coral in the form of excretion products • To Coral: ◦ Provides carbohydrates for coral (Many algae exclude excess sugars that they produce from photosynthesis but cannot use do to lack of other nutrients ‣ Coral forms • Corals can be roughly grouped in two categories based on shape ◦ Massive corals ◦ Branching corals ‣ Tradeoffs • Massive corals ◦ Example: Brain corals ◦ Resistant to storm damage, but slow growing. Ca be overgrown by fast-growing species and can be covered by sediment • Branching coral ◦ Example: Staghorn and plate coral ◦ Can grow quickly (r-selected) to outgrow competitors but are easily damaged by storms (although fragments may also start new colonies) ‣ Coral Reefs ◦ Coral reef distribution dependent on temperature due to symbionts and calcium carbonate chemistry ◦ Familiar coral reefs are found in warm, shallow water • Cold-water Reefs ◦ Also form in cold, often very deep water ◦ No symbionts, so slow growing • Warm-water Reefs ◦ Coral islands enclosing a lagoon are referred to as atolls ◦ The way atolls form as the first proposed by Charles Darwin • Atoll Development ◦ Active Volcano ◦ Fringing Reef ◦ Barrier Reef ◦ Atoll ◦ Weight of volcano causes it to sink in ◦ As volcano sinks, the coral reef separates from the volcano ◦ As volcano sinks, reef moves higher ◦ Barrier reef forms as island continues to sink ◦ Reef continues to grow ◦ Barrier Reef ‣ Fringing feel along continents can also become barrier reefs as sea level rose following the ice age\ ◦ Sinking of island forms atoll lagoon ‣ Island below sea level • Coral Treats ◦ 1. Sediment ‣ Land use practices (deforestation, agriculture, coastal development) can increase sediment load ‣ Destruction mangrove swamps loses their filtering role ‣ Coral defense • Surface of corals covered with layer of mucous • Mucous traps sediment • Cilia moves mucous, and sediment, off coral head • Much of the symbiont food goes into producing this mucus ◦ 2. Nutrient Runoff ‣ Excess nutrients can fuel algae growth, overgrowing the corals ◦ 3. Coral Bleaching ‣ Loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates ‣ recovery is possible if bleaching is short term ‣ Causes • In general caused by stress • Pollution has been implicated • Temperature is prime culprit of recent events such as zooxanthella they are expected from coral • In some cases zooxanthellae can rein habit bleached corals polyps ◦ 4. Carbon dioxide increase ‣ CO2 in atmosphere will diffuse into ocean, mire in cold water than warm ‣ IN Water, CO2 forms carbonic acid ‣ High levels can prevent corals from absorbing sufficient calcium carbonate • Comb Jellies ‣ Important predators of zooplankton in ocean ‣ Can grow fast and dominate plankton ‣ Have come rows, plates of fused cilia, for swimming ‣ High densities of Mnemiopsis, a species that invited black sea causing havoc to fisheries ◦ Position on the animal tree ‣ Once grouped with cnidarians because of their resemblance to jellyfish ‣ New genetic evidence indicates that comb jellies may be more ancient, and may have been one of the earliest animal groups to evolve, even before sponges • Flatworm (planaria) ◦ Appear at a critical junction in evolution ◦ Cnidarian Limitations ‣ 1. Muscles are extensions of skin cells, just one layer think ‣ 2. Central chamber has many functions • Digestion, respiration, extension, reproduction ‣ As animals move, one part of the body experiences new environments first ‣ Key consequence of movement is tendency to locate sense and feeding organs near front of animal • Statocyst is sense organ located towards front ◦ Flatworms are mainly predators ◦ Muscles ‣ Consist of longitudinal, latitudinal, and diagonal muscle fibers that gives them great control over body movement ◦ Locomotion ‣ Flatworms secrete packets of condensed mucous that forms a layer of slime ‣ epidermis is covered with cilia, which pushed against mucous to propel animal ◦ Simplest flatworms ‣ The gut is simply a mass of cells that engulfs food ◦ Complex flatworms ‣ Have a true gut with branching chambers ◦ Innovations of flatworms ‣ 1. Appearance of a head ‣ 2. Three true tissue layers • Which allows isolation of interior of the animal ‣ 3. Organ systems • Excretory, digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems ◦ Nervous system ‣ Note concentration of nerves in head ◦ Fission of Planaria ‣ One advantage of the repetition of body parts is each piece contains come organs • Nerve, digestive, reproductive ◦ Parasitic Flatworms ‣ 1. Flukes (trematodes) ‣ 2. Tapeworm (cestodes) ‣ Parasitic forms are highly specialized and often bear little resemblance to free-living forms ◦ Flukes ‣ Parasitic flatworms ‣ Have mouth and digestive tract ‣ Attach with bhooksand suckers ‣ Feed on blood and tissue ‣ Schistosomiasis (blood flukes) affects 200,000,000 people ◦ Tapeworms ‣ Very different from free-living flatworms ‣ No digestive system of mouth ‣ Absorb food directly through skin ‣ Attach with 'scolex', new segments bud off this ‣ Segments contain both male and female organs, and produce 50,000 eggs each ‣ each worm may have 2,000-4,000 segments ‣ Affects > 100,000,000 people worldwide • Roundworms (nematodes) ◦ Simple design, vast numbers of species and individuals ◦ Have cuticle, and molt their exoskeleton ‣ Cuticle is hard outer layer formed by skin ‣ Exoskeleton is external layer supporting muscles ‣ Molt is the shedding of exoskeleton in order to grow ◦ Having a fixed number of cells as adults is common ◦ Internal anatomy ‣ Cuticle is rigid and muscles are longitudinal (lengthwise) only ◦ Body is a pressurized cylinder closed off at mouth and anus by muscles ‣ This creates a hydrostatic skeleton ◦ Parasitic roundworms are common ◦ Types of Roundworms ‣ Roundworms, pinworms, trichinella (trichinosis), and dog heartworms ◦ Nematodes ‣ Important agricultural pets ‣ They can be helpful if they infect other pets ◦ Nematode Diversity ‣ "If all matter on earth except for nematode were to suddenly vanish, the outline of every form, living and non-living, would be visible as a ghostly shadow." ‣ One basic body form, yet number of species may be greater than that


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