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US History Chapter 22

by: Susan Miller

US History Chapter 22 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878

Susan Miller
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America and the Great War: the Great War, America and the War, Mobilizing a Nation, the American Role in the War, the Politics of Peace, Stumbling from War to Peace, Effects of the Great War
History 2112
Dr. William Price
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susan Miller on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Kennesaw State University taught by Dr. William Price in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see History 2112 in History at Kennesaw State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
US History Since 1877 Chapter 22 America and the Great War I.The Great War A. Causes 1. Long standing national rivalries a) Austro-Hungarian Empire (unstable group of around 10 nationalities) wanted to stop Serbia’s expansion in the Balkan Peninsula 2. Ethnic conflicts a) Serbia wanted to create Yugoslavia (a nation encompassing all Serbs from the Austro-Hungarian Empire) B. Fighting Erupts 1. Why? a) Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne (1) Killed by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914 (2) Germany backed Austria-Hungary (3) Russia backed Serbia 2. Major Players a) Central Powers (1) Aka the Triple Alliance (2) Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy b) Allied Powers (1) Aka the Triple Entente (2) France, Great Britain, and Russia 3. Action a) Germany declared war on Russia, then France, then invaded (neutral) Belgium b) “Rape of Belgium” brought Great Britain into the war c) The Western Front: the line of fighting in France and Belgium d) The Eastern Front: Russia vs. Germany/Austria-Hungary/Ottomans C. An Industrial War 1. Trench Warfare a) Both sides took shelter in deep trenches and attacked by trying to run through the mud, barbed wire, and corpse-filled “no-mans-land” II. America and the War A. Initial American Reactions 1. Supporting the Allies a) Exports to France and Great Britain (1) Quadrupled from 1914-1916 (2) Got loans from the US Government b) Wilson very against going to war (1) Maintained official neutrality for 30 months (2) Said that as a neutral nation, under international law, the US should be able to ship anything to any nation that they wanter (3) Britain started to search neutral ships for supplies going to Germany (a) Announced a few months later that they would capture any ships with supplies for the enemy 2. Neutral Rights and Submarine Attacks a) U-Boats (1) Germany announced that any ships around the British Isles would be sunk by German submarines, or U-Boats (2) In the past, it was custom to at least let the people surrender and get off the ship b) The Lusitania (1) British luxury passenger ship (a) Germans sank it on May 7, 1915 (b) 1,198 people, including 128 Americans, died (2) The Arabic (a) British liner, 2 Americans on board (3) The Sussex (a) March 24, 1916, French passenger ferry (b) Killed 80 passengers, injured two Americans (c) The Sussex Pledge: Germany promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships after Wilson threatened to end relations with them 3. Preparing for War a) “Preparedness movement” (1) Efforts to strengthen the army and the navy b) National Defense Act (1916) (1) Declared the expansion of the army from 90,000 to 223,000 over five years B. The 1916 Election 1. Nominees a) Republicans (1) Roosevelt wanted it but was scaring people with his “YayWar!” stance (2) Nominated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes b) Democrats (1) Nominated Wilson (2) Platform centered on social-welfare legislation and military preparedness c) Outcome (1) Wilson won California (the key state) by only 4,000 votes C. America Goes to War 1. The Zimmermann Telegram a) Message sent to Mexico by German official, Arthur Zimmermann (1) Intercepted by the British on February 25, 1917 (2) Told Mexico that Germany would give Mexico back their territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if Mexico attacked the US b) Americans called for war 2. America Enters the War a) Wilson asked Congress to go to war on April 2, after Germany sank 5 US ships (1) Senate passed 82 to 6 (2) House passed 373 to 50 b) Entered war on April 6, 1917 III. Mobilizing a Nation A. Preparations 1. Expansion of federal authority a) Drafted millions of men aged 21 to 30 b) Used industries for “wartime needs” c) Took over railroads 2. War Industries Board (WIB) a) Created in 1917 b) Most important federal mobilization agency c) Had authority to ration raw materials, construct factories, and set prices 3. Food Administration a) Herbert Hoover appointed head b) Increased agricultural production and reduce consumption on the home front B. A New Labor Force 1. Women a) Took the jobs that drafted men had vacated b) Women first took traditional jobs (1) Fund-raising, food-drives, volunteered for Red Cross c) Soon were working in “men-only” jobs (1) On farms, loading docks, railway crews (2) Machine shops, steel and lumber mills, chemical plants d) When the men returned… (1) Women were told to go back to the home or to their previous jobs 2. African Americans a) The Great Migration (1) Northern business owners were desperate to find works for their factories or mills (2) More than 400,000 blacks moved north (3) By 1930 the number of African Americans living in the North was had tripled from 1910 b) Reasons (1) Plenty of jobs in the North (2) Pay was better in the North (3) Racism was less obvious (a) Schools were not segregated 3. Mexican Americans a) David Barkley Hernandez (1) Dropped last name to enlist (Mexicans could not serve where he lived) (a) Died in France two days before the war ended (b) First person of Mexican heritage to receive the Medal of Honor b) Economic expansion created jobs (1) Many Mexican Americans moved to bigger cities where there were more opportunities C. Loss of Civil Liberties 1. German American Discrimination a) Public harassment b) Boycott of German beers, the language was no longer taught in schools, symphonies would not play German music from Bach or Beethoven 2. Espionage Act (1917) a) 20 years in jail for anyone who helped the enemy, encouraged disloyalty, or refused to serve in the military b) 1,055 people convicted (1) Mostly just critics of the war 3. Sedition Act (1918) a) Expanded Espionage Act to include anyone who tried to stop the selling of war bonds or promoted decreases in production IV. The American Role in the War A. The Bolshevik Revolution 1. Russia became the first nation to crack a) Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne b) “Provisional government” took over c) Germans helped Vladimir Lenin return to Russia (1) Had been exiled (2) Germany wanted him to cause chaos in Russia 2. Lenin a) Mobilized the Bolsheviks (1) Group of “ruthless Communist revolutionaries” (2) On November 6, 1917, seized control of the provisional government (3) Declared a dictatorship b) Total control (1) Banned political parties and all organized religions (2) Eliminated civil liberties and freedom of press (3) Killed political leaders and opponents (4) Killed tsar and his family (think Disney movie Anastasia) 3. Triggered long civil war B. Fourteen Points 1. Peace plan Wilson presented to Congress a) The Inquiry (1) Group of around 150 political, historical, geographical, and foreign politics experts (2) Organized by Wilson to come up with a peace plan b) 1-5 (1) Wilson wanted open diplomacy, no more secret treaties (2) “freedom of the seas”: rights of neutral nations (3) Removal of international trade barriers (4) Reduction of armaments (5) Transformation of colonial empires c) 6-12 (1) Territorial issues (2) Wilson wanted “self-determination” in Europe (a) Basically ethnic groups got the choice to develop their own nations d) 13 (1) Poland gets to be a new nation e) 14 (1) Wilson wanted a “League of Nations” to preserve global peace C. Russia Surrenders 1. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk a) Lenin wanted Russia out of the war so he could focus on dominating the country b) Russia had to give Germany and Turkey a lot of land c) Ukraine became a new country (Russia lost a huge portion of their population) d) $46 million to Germany D. Americans on the Western Front 1. Germany desperate to win the Eastern Front before the US arrived a) Got within 50 miles of Paris b) Suddenly lost momentum, couldn’t keep up with the necessary supplies 2. Americans arrive a) 650,000 soldiers b) Battle of Belleau Wood (1) US troops led by General John J. Pershing (a) Determined to win the stalemate c) October 6, 1918 (1) Germany asks Wilson for peace negotiations based on Fourteen Points E. The German Collapse 1. November 9: Kaiser Wilhelm II resigned a) Republic proclaimed 2. November 11: armistice signed a) Germans assured that the Fourteen Points would be the basis of the peace conference 3. Stats a) US involved for only 19 months (1) Lost 53,000 men in combat (2) 63,000 died of diseases b) Germany: 2 million including civilians c) France: 1.4 million d) Great Britain: 703,000 e) Russia: 1.7 million V. The Politics of Peace A. Wilson’s Key Errors 1. Decided to attend peace conference in Paris a) Left US for 6 months, became detached from political developments 2. Urged voters to elect of Democratic Congress a) Against the guidance of his advisors and political tradition b) Presidents had previously remained neutral during congressional elections c) Voters were not impressed (1) Democrats lost control of both the House and the Senate 3. Did not appoint a prominent Republican to the head of the American delegation to the peace conference a) Accused of wanting to “hog the whole show” by Taft B. The Paris Peace Conference 1. January to June 1919 2. The Big Four a) Britain, France, Italy, and the US b) David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister, wanted harsh provisions to weaken Germany c) Vittorio Orlando, Italian Prime Minister, wanted to gain territory 3. The League of Nations a) Article X (1) Allowed member nations to impose military or economic penalties b) Republicans scorned Wilson for his idealism C. The Treaty of Versailles 1. Wilson forced to concede many points a) France and Poland gained German territory b) Self-Determination principle abandoned (1) Creation of Austria, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia (2) German and Turkish colonies put under British and French control until they were ready for independence 2. “War Guilt” Clause a) Germany took responsibility for the entire war b) So offended Germany that it became a major cause of the rise of the Nazis 3. Germans refused to sign and had 443 pages of criticism a) Minor changes made b) Germans still didn’t agree c) French threatened to attack again d) The Germans signed the treaty in the Hall of Mirrors at the Versailles Palace 4. Nobody was totally satisfied D. The Treaty Debate 1. Wilson returned to get the Senate to pass the treaty a) Assured the French that nothing would change 2. League of Nations a) Caused the most issues b) People were afraid that foreign involvement would put domestic concerns on the backburner c) 14 Republicans and 2 Democrats refused to support American membership in the League of Nations d) Some wanted to approve the treaty but have limited involvement in the League 3. Let the People Decide a) Wanted to win public support (1) Decided he was going to visit over 20 cities and give 40 speeches (2) Against his doctor’s orders (3) Collapsed after a speech and was forced to cut the trip short and return to Washington D. C. 4. A Stricken President a) Wilson suffered a stroke two weeks later (1) Paralyzed on left side (2) Only secretary, wife, and doctor knew 5. The Treaty Under Attack a) Senate proposed 14 Changes to the Treaty (1) Wilson rejected all of them (2) Senate voted 39 in favor of the changes, 55 against b) Dangerous power vacuum opened in Europe (1) US failed to ratify the Treaty (2) Adolf Hitler would fill the void VI. Stumbling from War to Peace A. The Spanish Flu 1. Appeared suddenly in the spring of 1918 a) Outbreak lasted a year b) Killed 100 million people worldwide (twice as many as died in the war) c) US: 675,000 deaths (1) Hospitals ran out of beds; funeral homes out of coffins B. Suffrage at Last 1. The 19 Amendment a) August 18 , 1920, women granted the right to vote b) Fun Fact: Tennessee was tied at 48-48 (1) Harry T. Burns, a 24-year-old legislator, changed his vote to yes because his mother told him to c) 1920 Presidential election (1) Women made up 40% of voters C. Economic Turbulence 1. Labor Strikes grew a) Wartime control of wages no longer in place b) Mostly wanted higher wages and shorter days c) Critics linked the mutinous workers to the Communist Party (1) In reality, less than 70,000 Americans belonged to the Party 2. Boston Police Strike a) September 1919 b) Governor mobilized National Guard to maintain order and public safety c) After 4 days, the policemen offered to return (1) Calvin Coolidge ordered that they all be fired (2) Said, “There is no right to strike against public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.” D. Race Riots 1. Deadly Riots a) African Americans moved out of the south (1) Developed successful careers (2) Asserted civil rights (3) This infuriated whites b) In 1919, 76 African Americans (9 veterans) killed 2. The Red Summer a) Began July 1919, red signifying blood (1) White mob in Texas raided black neighborhood (a) Angry about rumors of interracial dating (2) Exaggerated (and fictitious) reports of black assaults on white women (a) Stirred white mobs and gangs (b) Soldiers had to end race wars in the streets b) Late July (1) 38 killed, 537 injured in Chicago (a) Popular site for blacks migrating from the South during the war (b) 5 days of race rioting (c) White workers resented blacks, who were hired as strikebreakers E. The Red Scare 1. People convinced that strikes and riots were inspired by Communists a) Violent militants did not help the situation (1) In 1919, the Secret Service uncovered a plot by Spanish anarchists to kill Wilson (2) 1919: forty homemade bombs intercepted in the mail, headed for federal officials 2. The First Red Scare a) One of the largest violations of civil liberties in US history b) Vigilantes took matters into their own hands (1) Sailor shot a spectator who refused to rise for the National Anthem (2) Man who murdered an immigrant for yelling, “To hell with the US” was let off the hook VII. Effects of the Great War A. Destroyed Europe 1. Infrastructure, economy, cities, empires B. Peace did not bring stability 1. Germans and Austrians were not happy with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles C. Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 1. War sped up the coming Bolshevik Revolution 2. Germany giving Lenin Russia also didn’t really help D. Postwar America 1. Economy largely unaffected 2. US became the world’s dominant power


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