PSY 320 Week 4 Notes
PSY 320 Week 4 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12/16 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM ● Categorized recognized disorders ● Vague descriptions heavily influenced by psychoanalytic theory (freud) DSMII ● Included more disorders, still had pretty vague descriptions DSMIII, DSMIIIR, DSMIV, DSMIVTR ● Replaced vague descriptions with specific concrete criteria DSMV ● Incorporated a continuum or dimensional perspective ○ Ex: autism spectrum not black and white, somewhere on the spectrum ○ Ex: may not be schizophrenic, but could still have schizophrenic tendencies Chapter 4 Scientific Method Defining problem/stating hypothesis ● Hypothesis predictive statement ● Null hypothesis predict no difference or opposite outcome Select research methods ● Variable Factor or characteristic that can vary among samples ● Dependent variable Measured factor ● Independent variable Factor that can affect a dependent variable, the manipulated variable Collect and analyze data Make conclusions and document results Ethical Issues in Research Understanding the study Confidentiality Participants have to know that they have the right to refuse or withdraw participation Experimenters have to acquire informed consent from participants Deception have to be careful with this, deception can be used but no more than necessary ● Joining ● During Debriefed at the end of the study explain to participants what the study was about, clear up any deceptions if deception was used Case Studies Detailed history Single individuals to make general inferences Study rare problems Cannot be generalized may just apply to special cases Lack objectivity Ex: Phineas Gage brain injury that changed his personality Correlational Research Variables measured to see if they COVARY No variables are manipulated, just measured Hypothesis predicts how variables are related (like whether they will be positively correlated or negatively correlated) Correlation Coefficient Relationship between variables r ● Falls between 1.00 and +1.00 ● Positive correlation coefficient variables change in the same way (both increase or both decrease) ● Negative correlation coefficient variables change in opposite way (one increases, other decreases) Statistical Significance How likely a result is due to chance Statistical and clinical significance are not necessarily equivalent ● Statistical is usually significant if chance of error is <5%, clinical is usually significant if chance of error is <1% Evaluating Correlational Studies Advantages ● External validity generalizes to real life Disadvantages ● Time consuming ● Not indicative of cause and effect ● Third variable problem other factors that could have accounted for the correlation ○ Ex: someone got a better grade on the test because they were interested in the topic, not necessarily because they studied more Epidemiological Studies Study of frequency and distribution of a disorder ● Prevalence proportion of the population ● Incidence occurrence within a specified period of time ● Risk factors conditions associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of a problem ○ Ex: age, genetic predisposition, etc. Limitation ● Not causal ● Third variables Human Laboratory Studies Exposing participants to an event in the laboratory and then determining its impact ● Internal validity are we actually testing our hypothesis ● Control group does not get treatment/Independent variable is not manipulated ● Experimental group gets treatment/Independent variable is manipulated ● Random assignment every participant has an equal chance of being in the experimental or control group Threat to internal validity ● Demand characteristics participants guess the purpose of the study and they change their behavior (consciously or unconsciously) ○ Experimenter bias consciously or unconsciously do something to affect results (Ex: treating people in different groups differently based on their expectations) ○ Double blind experiment participants and experimenters are unaware of conditions (control for demand characteristic and experimenter bias) Therapy Outcome Studies Test if specific therapy reduces a problem Wait list control group (Therapy) Do not receive therapy when the experimental group does, but instead in a few weeks after the study is over ● Use this because ethically you cannot deny someone treatment, but you still need a control ● Placebo control group (drugs) ○ Take pills with inactive substances ○ Ethical? Advantages ● Provide help to people in distress as research is generated Disadvantages ● Which aspect of therapy reduced the psychopathology (was it the talk therapy, just interacting with another human, the drugs?) ● Appropriate control groups ● Generalizability of results to realworld is unclear Genetic Studies Identify genetic factors associated with psychopathology Investigate the degree to which genes play a role ● Family history studies ● Identical twin studies ● Adoption studies 9/16/16 Chapter 5 Fight or Flight Response Physical and psychological responses fight a threat or flee Noticeable effects ● Pupil dilation ● Dry mouth ● Tensing of muscles in neck and shoulders ● Pounding heart ● Breathing is fast and shallow (oxygen needed for muscles) ● Sweating Hidden effects ● Adrenaline produced ● Liver releases glucose (energy for muscles) ● Blood pressure rises ● Brain gets body ready for action Activate 2 systems 1. Sympathetic Nervous System ● Uses nerve pathways to initiate reactions ● Release norepinephrine ○ Neurotransmitter responsible for vigilant concentration 2. Adrenalcortical system ● Uses bloodstream to initiate reactions ● Corticotropinreleasing factor (CRF) ○ Activates the adrenal cortical system ● Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ○ Increased production and release of cortisol Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Diagnostic criteria of DSM5 requires: a) Exposure (at least 1) ● Directly experience or witness traumatic event ● Learn event happened to someone close ● Experience repeated/extreme exposure to the details of event b) Intrusive symptoms ● Reliving event ● Dreams ● Dissociative reaction (flashbacks) ● Psychological distress and physical reactions to cues that resemble the event c) Persistent avoidance ● Avoid thoughts, or memories of event ● Avoid physical cues (people, places) d) Negative changes in thought and mood associated with event ● Inability to remember key details ● Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs ● Distorted and negative beliefs of event lead to guilt ● Persistent negative state ● detachment/estranged from others ● Inability to experience positive emotions e) Changes in arousal and reactivity ● Extreme irritability ● Hypervigilance ● Exaggerated startle response ● Reckless self destructive behavior ● Difficulty concentrating ● Sleep disturbances f) Duration of at least one month g) Significant distress or impairment on social life or occupation h) Not due to physiological effect, substance abuse or other medical condition G and F are on every diagnosis in DSM Common causes ● Rape ● War ● Natural disasters ● Car or plane crashes ● Terrorist attacks ● Sudden death of loved one ● Kidnapping ● Assault ● Sexual, emotional or physical abuse ● Childhood neglect ● First responders Theories of why some people get PTSD and others don’t ● Environmental and social factors ○ Severity and duration ○ Proximity to trauma ○ Social support available ● Psychological factors ○ Preexisting conditions ○ Coping strategies ● Gender and cross cultural differences ○ Women more prone more documented cases, because rape is #1 cause and men are less likely to admit PTSD issues and more likely to self medicate ○ African americans have higher rates again, not really a biological reason that African Americans would have more PTSD, there are just more documented cases ● Biological factors ○ Neuroimaging findings brains of people with PTSD more reactive to emotional stimuli, can’t tell which comes first emotional reactivity or PTSD ○ Biochemical findings ■ Exaggerated physiological response to stress ■ Exposure to extreme or chronic stress during childhood ○ Genetics ■ Vulnerability to PTSD can be inherited ■ Problem with this child growing up with someone who has PTSD could predispose them to get the disorder, not necessarily genetic Treatments for PTSD ● Cognitive Therapy ○ Systematic desensitization associate pleasant relaxed state with anxiety triggering stimuli ● Cognitive restructuring ○ Make sense of bad memories ○ Sometimes memory differs from event ● Stressinoculation therapy therapists teach clients skills for overcoming problems that: ○ Increase stress ○ Result from PTSD ● Biological therapies ○ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Prozac, Zoloft ○ Benzodiazepines Xanax