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PSY 320 Week 4 Notes

by: Erin Wade

PSY 320 Week 4 Notes PSY 320

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Lecture notes for week 4 Prof Amberg DSM, types of studies, PTSD
Abnormal Psychology
Martha D Amberg
Class Notes
PSY320, Amberg, Psychology, abnormalpsychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12/16  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  ­ DSM  ● Categorized recognized disorders  ● Vague descriptions heavily influenced by psychoanalytic theory (freud)  ­ DSM­II  ● Included more disorders, still had pretty vague descriptions  ­ DSM­III, DSM­IIIR, DSM­IV, DSM­IV­TR  ● Replaced vague descriptions with specific concrete criteria  ­ DSM­V  ● Incorporated a continuum or dimensional perspective  ○ Ex: autism spectrum ­ not black and white, somewhere on the spectrum  ○ Ex: may not be schizophrenic, but could still have schizophrenic  tendencies    Chapter 4    Scientific Method  ­ Defining problem/stating hypothesis  ● Hypothesis ­ predictive statement  ● Null hypothesis ­ predict no difference or opposite outcome  ­ Select research methods  ● Variable ­ Factor or characteristic that can vary among samples  ● Dependent variable ­ Measured factor  ● Independent variable ­ Factor that can affect a dependent variable, the  manipulated variable  ­ Collect and analyze data  ­ Make conclusions and document results    Ethical Issues in Research  ­ Understanding the study  ­ Confidentiality  ­ Participants have to know that they have the right to refuse or withdraw participation  ­ Experimenters have to acquire informed consent from participants  ­ Deception ­ have to be careful with this, deception can be used but no more than  necessary  ● Joining  ● During  ­ Debriefed at the end of the study ­ explain to participants what the study was about,  clear up any deceptions if deception was used    Case Studies  ­ Detailed history  ­ Single individuals to make general inferences  ­ Study rare problems  ­ Cannot be generalized ­ may just apply to special cases  ­ Lack objectivity  ­ Ex: Phineas Gage ­ brain injury that changed his personality    Correlational Research  ­ Variables measured to see if they COVARY  ­ No variables are manipulated, just measured  ­ Hypothesis predicts how variables are related (like whether they will be positively  correlated or negatively correlated)    Correlation Coefficient  ­ Relationship between variables  ­ r  ● Falls between ­1.00 and +1.00  ● Positive correlation coefficient ­ variables change in the same way (both increase  or both decrease)  ● Negative correlation coefficient ­ variables change in opposite way (one  increases, other decreases)    Statistical Significance  ­ How likely a result is due to chance  ­ Statistical and clinical significance are not necessarily equivalent   ● Statistical is usually significant if chance of error is <5%, clinical is usually  significant if chance of error is <1%    Evaluating Correlational Studies  ­ Advantages  ● External validity ­ generalizes to real life  ­ Disadvantages  ● Time consuming  ● Not indicative of cause and effect  ● Third variable problem ­ other factors that could have accounted for the  correlation  ○ Ex: someone got a better grade on the test because they were interested  in the topic, not necessarily because they studied more    Epidemiological Studies  ­ Study of frequency and distribution of a disorder  ● Prevalence ­ proportion of the population  ● Incidence ­ occurrence within a specified period of time  ● Risk factors ­ conditions associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of a  problem  ○ Ex: age, genetic predisposition, etc.   ­ Limitation  ● Not causal  ● Third variables    Human Laboratory Studies  ­ Exposing participants to an event in the laboratory and then determining its impact  ● Internal validity ­ are we actually testing our hypothesis  ● Control group ­ does not get treatment/Independent variable is not manipulated  ● Experimental group ­ gets treatment/Independent variable is manipulated  ● Random assignment ­ every participant has an equal chance of being in the  experimental or control group  ­ Threat to internal validity  ● Demand characteristics ­ participants guess the purpose of the study and they  change their behavior (consciously or unconsciously)  ○ Experimenter bias ­ consciously or unconsciously do something to affect  results (Ex: treating people in different groups differently based on their  expectations)  ○ Double blind experiment ­ participants and experimenters are unaware of  conditions (control for demand characteristic and experimenter bias)    Therapy Outcome Studies  ­ Test if specific therapy reduces a problem  ­ Wait list control group (Therapy) ­ Do not receive therapy when the experimental group  does, but instead in a few weeks after the study is over  ● Use this because ethically you cannot deny someone treatment, but you still  need a control  ● Placebo control group (drugs)  ○ Take pills with inactive substances  ○ Ethical?   ­ Advantages  ● Provide help to people in distress as research is generated  ­ Disadvantages   ● Which aspect of therapy reduced the psychopathology (was it the talk therapy,  just interacting with another human, the drugs?)  ● Appropriate control groups  ● Generalizability of results to real­world is unclear    Genetic Studies  ­ Identify genetic factors associated with psychopathology  ­ Investigate the degree to which genes play a role  ● Family history studies  ● Identical twin studies  ● Adoption studies    9/16/16    Chapter 5  Fight or Flight Response  ­ Physical and psychological responses ­ fight a threat or flee  ­ Noticeable effects  ● Pupil dilation  ● Dry mouth  ● Tensing of muscles in neck and shoulders  ● Pounding heart  ● Breathing is fast and shallow (oxygen needed for muscles)  ● Sweating  ­ Hidden effects  ● Adrenaline produced  ● Liver releases glucose (energy for muscles)  ● Blood pressure rises  ● Brain gets body ready for action  ­ Activate 2 systems  1. Sympathetic Nervous System  ● Uses nerve pathways to initiate reactions  ● Release norepinephrine  ○ Neurotransmitter responsible for vigilant concentration  2. Adrenal­cortical system  ● Uses bloodstream to initiate reactions  ● Corticotropin­releasing factor (CRF)  ○ Activates the adrenal cortical system  ● Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  ○ Increased production and release of cortisol    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  ­ Diagnostic criteria of DSM­5 requires:  a) Exposure (at least 1)  ● Directly experience or witness traumatic event  ● Learn event happened to someone close  ● Experience repeated/extreme exposure to the details of event  b) Intrusive symptoms  ● Reliving event  ● Dreams  ● Dissociative reaction (flashbacks)  ● Psychological distress and physical reactions to cues that resemble the  event  c) Persistent avoidance  ● Avoid thoughts, or memories of event  ● Avoid physical cues (people, places)  d) Negative changes in thought and mood associated with event  ● Inability to remember key details  ● Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs  ● Distorted and negative beliefs of event ­ lead to guilt  ● Persistent negative state  ● detachment/estranged from others  ● Inability to experience positive emotions  e) Changes in arousal and reactivity  ● Extreme irritability  ● Hypervigilance  ● Exaggerated startle response  ● Reckless self destructive behavior  ● Difficulty concentrating  ● Sleep disturbances  f) Duration of at least one month  g) Significant distress or impairment on social life or occupation  h) Not due to physiological effect, substance abuse or other medical condition  G and F are on every diagnosis in DSM  ­ Common causes  ● Rape  ● War  ● Natural disasters  ● Car or plane crashes  ● Terrorist attacks  ● Sudden death of loved one  ● Kidnapping  ● Assault  ● Sexual, emotional or physical abuse  ● Childhood neglect  ● First responders  ­ Theories of why some people get PTSD and others don’t  ● Environmental and social factors  ○ Severity and duration  ○ Proximity to trauma  ○ Social support available  ● Psychological factors  ○ Pre­existing conditions  ○ Coping strategies  ● Gender and cross cultural differences  ○ Women more prone ­ more documented cases, because rape is #1 cause  and men are less likely to admit PTSD issues and more likely to self  medicate  ○ African americans have higher rates ­ again, not really a biological reason  that African Americans would have more PTSD, there are just more  documented cases  ● Biological factors  ○ Neuroimaging findings ­ brains of people with PTSD more reactive to  emotional stimuli, can’t tell which comes first emotional reactivity or PTSD  ○ Biochemical findings  ■ Exaggerated physiological response to stress  ■ Exposure to extreme or chronic stress during childhood  ○ Genetics  ■ Vulnerability to PTSD can be inherited   ■ Problem with this ­ child growing up with someone who has PTSD  could predispose them to get the disorder, not necessarily genetic  ­ Treatments for PTSD  ● Cognitive Therapy  ○ Systematic desensitization ­ associate pleasant relaxed state with anxiety  triggering stimuli  ● Cognitive restructuring  ○ Make sense of bad memories  ○ Sometimes memory differs from event  ● Stress­inoculation therapy ­ therapists teach clients skills for overcoming  problems that:  ○ Increase stress  ○ Result from PTSD  ● Biological therapies  ○ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) ­ Prozac, Zoloft  ○ Benzodiazepines ­ Xanax           


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