Week 3 Notes: Brain Structure and Function
Week 3 Notes: Brain Structure and Function PSYCH 1101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Cornell University.
Reviews for Week 3 Notes: Brain Structure and Function
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/16/16
9/9/16 The Brain Part 3: Brain Structure and Function ➔ A Few Kinds of Neurotransmitters ◆ Serotonin: plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite ◆ Norepinephrine: affects eating habits (stimulating the intake of carbohydrates) and play major role in alert and wakefulness ◆ GABA( gammaaminobutyric acid): main inhibitory transmitter in the brain ● Can cause seizures ● Alcohol and benzodiazepines work in part by acting on this chemical ◆ Endorphins: relief from pain or stress of vigorous exercise and produce feelings of pleasure and well being ➔ How drugs Affect Neurotransmitters ◆ Many drugs act by influencing in numerous ways ● An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. ● An antagonist is a substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another. ◆ Influences chemical precursors of a transmitter substance ◆ Prevent storage of the transmitter in vesicles ◆ Inhibit or stimulate the release of transmitter substance ◆ Bloc postsynaptic receptors ◆ Block reuptake of free flowing transmitter substance ➔ Example: Dopamine, Disease, And Drugs ◆ Cocaine and amphetamines Increase levels of dopamine. Some hypothetical situations ● Crystal meth a week straight? Dopamine boosted highest level= Amphetamine psychosis ○ Amphetamine psychosis is patient is experiencing delusions and hallucinations ● Has not touched crystal meth, BUT still having delusions and hallucinations= Schizophrenia ○ Schizophrenia is A brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. ○ Schizophrenia can be improved by the use of drugs that reduce dopamine ● BUT not enough dopamine and you might get tardive dyskinesia ○ Tardive dyskinesia is the uncontrollable bodily movement twitching and shaking) ● Having uncontrollable bodily movement but you didn't take the dopaminereducing drugs? Could possibly be Parkinson’s ○ Parkinson's Disease is A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors. ○ Parkinson’s Disease can be treated by increasing the levels of dopamine in your brain, bringing your body to a temporary rest ➔ Structure and Function ◆ For Some Things, We Don't Even Need Our Brain ● Some reflexes don't need to go through the brain ○ Sucking in newborns ○ Limb flexion in withdrawal from pain ○ Erections ◆ The Mammalian Brain ● ➔ Why These Brains are Oversimplified ◆ Even the smallest brain structures are incredibly complex, contain structures that we have not captured ◆ Although people discuss the functions of various brain structures, the brain is based on connections the important is based on the interconnections ◆ On top of that, the brain can recognize ITSELF= plasticity ● Plasticithe adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats. ➔ Localization v Plasticity ◆ Neuroplasticity: Changes in physical structure ad functional organization of the brain due to experience ● Learning (neurons that fire together= wire together) ● Remapping of sensory cortex ● Brain damage ● Can be positive or negative ◆ Localization: The idea that different parts of the brain do different things. ➔ Subcortical Structures ◆ Medulla: ● Autonomic functions: autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions ○ Heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, vomiting ◆ Cerebellum: Complicated skilled motor movements ● Mental and sensory tasks; autonomation of many tasks ◆ Hypothalamus: Hunger, thirst, sleep, body temp, regulatory component that performs homeostatic functions ➔ The Cortex: NEED TO KNOW THIS ◆ ➔ Cortical Area Function Prefrontal Cortex Problem Solving, Emotion, Complex Thought Motor Association Cortex Coordination of complex movement Primary Motor Cortex Initiation of optional movement Primary Somatosensory Cortex Receives tangible information from the body Sensory Association Area Processing of multisensory information Visual Association Area Complex processing of visual information Visual Cortex Detection of simple visual stimuli Wernicke's Area Language comprehension Auditory Association Area Complex processing of auditory information Auditory Cortex Detection of sound quality (loudness, tone) Broca's Area Speech production and articulation ➔ Structures Preserved Over Evolution ◆ ➔ Motor and Sensory Cortex ◆ ● Motor Cortex ○ Located in cerebral cortex ○ Apart of Frontal lobe that involves planning, control, and execution of optional movement ○ Primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement ○ The primary somatosensory cortex,considered to be functionally part of the motor control circ itry. ● Sensory Cortex (see above in the cortex)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'