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BSC 114, Week 4 Notes

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Week 4 Notes BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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The Cell part 2
Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12 The Cell: Part 2 Vacuoles  Membrane-bound sacs within the cell that are larger than vesicles  Various Functions: -Food vacuoles (formed by phagocytosis) -Contractile vacuole (fresh protists use them to pump excess water out of the cell) -Central vacuoles (plants use them to store organic compounds, inorganic ions, pigment, or poisonous substances) Mitochondria  Converts energy to forms that the cell can use  Sites of cellular respiration: a process that generates ATP  Capable of moving on their own, changing their shape, and dividing  Contain DNA that is separate from the nucleus and unique to the cell  Hundreds or even thousands of mitochondria in a cell  2 sets of membranes: both are composed of phospholipid bilayers  Outer membrane: smooth  Inner membrane: convoluted with many folds called cristae  Cristae: give the organelle a lot of surface area for cellular respiration Chloroplasts  Convert energy to forms that the cell can use  Only found in plants and some protozoans  Photosynthesis  Convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to build organic compounds from CO and2H O 2  They are specialized members of a family of plant organelles called plastids  Contain chlorophyll and enzymes for photosynthesis  Move and divide in the cell and possess their own DNA  Have 2 sets of membranes Peroxisomes  A specialized compartment bound by a single membrane  Spherical shape  Often have a crystalline core that has a dense collection of enzymes  Contains enzymes that use oxygen to break fats down into smaller molecules  H 2 2s a byproduct, which is a poison in its own right, but is self- contained within the peroxisome  There is an enzyme present in the peroxisome that converts H O to2 2 H 2 Cytoskeleton  3 types of fibers in the cytoskeleton -Microtubules (thickest) -Intermediate filaments -Microfilaments (thinnest- also called actin filaments)  1) Provides mechanical support -Helps cell maintain its shape -Highly dynamic and can be quickly turned and reconstructed  2) Motility: Allows cells to move other proteins around -2 types of motility: changes in cell location and movements of part of the cell -Generally requires the interaction of the cytoskeleton with motor proteins Motility  Allows cells to move other proteins around  Motor proteins bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules and sliding them against each other  Similar mechanism in muscle cells for contraction, only microfilaments used, instead of microtubules Microtubules  Straight, hollow rods  Tubules can be broken down and reconstructed elsewhere in cells  Function in movement  Found in ALL eukaryotic cells  Ex. -Centrosomes and centrioles -Cilia and flagella Centrosomes and Centrioles  In animal cells, microtubules grow out from centrosomes (located near nucleus)  Within the centrosome there is a pair of centrioles, arranged in a ring  Before an animal cell divides, the centrioles replicate Cilia and Flagella  These are extensions from some cells  Special arrangements of microtubules are responsible for the beating of flagella and cilia Microfilaments (actin filaments)  Solid rods made of the protein actin  Form a 3D network inside the cell  Function in: -Cell motility: especially in muscle contraction where they work with another type of filament called nyosin -Cell division: pinches the newly formed cells apart (cytokinesis) Intermediate Filaments  Unlike microfilaments and microtubules, these are more or less permanent fixtures of a cell  They function primarily in reinforcing the shape of a cell and fixing the position of certain organelles  More like keratins Cell Walls  Only found in plants, fungi, some protists, and prokaryotes  Functions -Cell shape -Skeletal Support  Prevents excessive uptake of H O 2  Made of cellulose and other polysaccharides and proteins Extracellular Matrix (ECM)  The space between animal cells is filled with ECM  ECM is mostly made of glycoproteins secreted by the cells  The most abundant glycoprotein is collagen  Collagen forms strong fibers outside the cells  50% total protein in human body is collagen Intercellular Junctions  Function-communication between cells  Plants- cell walls of plants are perforated with channels called plasmodemata  Animals have 3 types of junctions Animal Intercellular Junctions 1. Tight junctions: forms a seal that prevents leakage of extracellular material 2. Desmosomes: anchoring junction-fasten cells together 3. Gap junctions: provide channels for communication between cells -A little like pores with special proteins surrounding them -Pores big enough for sugars, amino acids, and salts to pass through (like plasmodesmata of plants)


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