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HIST1301 Chapter 2

by: Anna Shulpina

HIST1301 Chapter 2 HIST1301

Anna Shulpina
Austin Community College
GPA 3.03

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Spanish Exploration and Conquest
History 1301
Curtis Baack
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Shulpina on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1301 at Austin Community College taught by Curtis Baack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History 1301 in History at Austin Community College.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 2 – Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492­1600 2.1. Identify the demographic catastrophe and technological devices in Europe in the 14th and 15th  centuries that encouraged European voyages of exploration.  The Black Death (bubonic plague), killing about 1/3 of the European population in the  14  century, was the demographic catastrophe that encouraged European voyages of  exploration by allowing the Europeans to want to explore more land, not wanting to stay  on the devastated, diseased homeland. Scientific and technological advances included the printing press, movable type (Gutenberg, makes printing easier and cheaper),  hourglasses, compass, information on sailing techniques and more.  2.2. Explain what motivated the Portuguese to explore foreign lands in the early 15th century.  Portugal, although making up less than 2% if the European population, was motivated by  religion and want of trade to explore new foreign lands (obtain gold).  2.3. Define “caravel” and discuss its importance in Portuguese exploration.  Caravel was ship used by Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus which allowed to  travel to the Atlantic Ocean by sailing both against and with the wind. It also allowed to  carry large quantities of items.  2.4. Name the first Europeans to trade on the West African coast and the objects of their journeys.  Portuguese were the first Europeans to trade with Africa on the west coast. They traded  for gold, slaves, and ivory. Slaves used to develop sugar plantations on the Cape Verde  islands.  2.5. List the consequences of the Portuguese exploration of Africa during the 15th century`.  It broke the monopoly of the old Mediterranean trade with the East, as well as expanded  the world that was known, established Portuguese outposts, and introduced methods  Columbus later used on his voyage.  2.6. Explain how the competing Spanish and Portuguese claims to the New World were settled.  Christopher Columbus heads west to find sea route to Asia and lands in the Caribbean in  1492. Spain becomes a serious challenger to Portugal and thus Spain and Portugal  negotiate the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 (West= Spain; East= Portugal). 2.7. Discuss the significance of Magellan’s voyage of 1519.  Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the globe in 1519. His voyage confirmed that  America was a separate continent and determined that the trip across the Pacific was too  costly.  Page 1 of 3 2.8. Define and give examples of the “Columbian exchange”.  Transatlantic exchange of goods, people, disease, and ideas. Europeans brought to the  New World Christianity, iron technology, sailing ships, firearms, wheeled vehicles,  horses, and viruses (smallpox, measles, etc.). Native Americans brought across the  Atlantic tobacco, corn, potatoes, coffee, chocolate, and disease.  2.9. Analyze how Hernán Cortés and his small army were able to successfully conquer the vast and  powerful Mexica Empire.  Superior weaponry (iron and steel against Mexican stone, wood, and copper), spread of  European diseases (smallpox), and exploitation of political tensions allowed Hernan  Cortez and his small army to conquer the Mexica Empire.  2.10. Locate the two geographic regions of greatest wealth in Spanish America.  Mexica (Mexico) and the Incan empire (Peru) offer the most treasure to the new Spanish  America.  2.11. Name the great Portuguese colony in the Western Hemisphere.  Brazil (sugar) 2.12. Define “royal fifth”.  1/5 of any loot commandeered goes to the Spanish monarchy 2.13. Define “encomienda”, identify the goal of encomienda, and explain how it worked.  It is the distribution of conquered lands that empowered conquistadors to rule the Native  Americans and their lands. Ecomiendero: the person who owned the town. Indians gave  tribute and labor while the encomendero guaranteed order and justice.  2.14. Describe the social class hierarchy that developed in New Spain.  The Peninsulares were people born on the Iberian Peninsula (highest class). The Creoles  were people born in the New World to Spanish men and women (lower). The Mestizoes  were offspring of Spanish men and Native American women (lower). The Native  American Indians were the lowest class. 2.15. Enumerate the demographic impact of European diseases on Native Americans by 1570.  In some locations, over 90% of Native Americans died of European diseases causing  their most valuable resource (labor) to decrease rapidly. Thus colonists began importing  African slaves to make up the lack of labor.  Page 2 of 3 2.16. Understand the significance of the Protestant Reformation.  Martin Luther publicized his criticisms of the Catholic Church (1517). He wanted to  reform the Catholic Church. That ruined the unity of Christianity in Western Europe.  Warfare drained Spain’s revenue gained from the Americas.  Page 3 of 3


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