Introduction to Psychology 1004 Week Two Notes
Introduction to Psychology 1004 Week Two Notes 1004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Vaughan on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
PSYCOLOGY METHODS 8/31/16—Dr. Harrisonburg (WEEK TWO) Uncertainty principle— karl heisenberg 1. you can speak with certainty only about that which you have observed. 2. They very act of observing changes that which is observed. right frontal lobe— social proprieties without it— social anarchy, rules don’t apply to me RESEARCH TERMS 1. Factual statements 1. Class performance & arousal level (anxiety) CURVILINEAR 2. murder & temperature 2. Empirical Laws 1. Performance is related to arousal level 2. THE YERKES DODSON LAW Performance is related to arousal level in an inverted U fashion. Not too low, not too high. (optimal point) 3. Theory —————> Hypothesis 1. Arousal theory 2. Reticular Activating System How do we study behavior??? 1. Case history (NOT a scientific method) 1. Retrospective Reconstruction 2. Freud & “Anna O” (hysteria) What type of design can a psychologist use to infer causality AN EXPERIMENT 2. Single- Subject Experiment 1. ABAB Reversal Design (Baseline, Treatment, Reversal, Treatment) Self-Abusive Behavior 2. Multiple Baseline Design Spasmodic Torticollis Hallmark of a Right Brain disorder: Doesn’t think they have a problem. 3. Test Method 1. SAT, ACT, INTELLIGENCE, ACHIEVEMENT 4. Survey Method 1. United States Census 5. Observational Method 1. Jane Goodall 2. Primates in Africa 3. Masters & Johnson 4. Sexual Behavior CORRELATIONAL METHOD 1. Allows prediction of one variable from the level of another variable (VT football & City HOH supply) 1. r= 0.00 to 1.00 2. r= Positive or Negative 3. r= +1.00 or -1.00 = Perfect Manipulated variable __ independent measure __ dependent 2. Coefficient of Determination (9/1/16) Psych Notes 1004 WEEK TWO BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR THE NEURONAL DOCTRINE Ramon y Cajal 3. Neuron 4. Basic unit of the nervous system 5. 86.1 billion in the human brain 6. Length: Whale: Up to 30 feet long Human: 1.5 feet Neurons analyze and make decisions. Neuron= basic unit of the nervous system Terms: Cell body \ Dendrite — “receptive" Spines / Axon Hillock — “analytic” Axon \ Buttons /“Expressive” HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE 3. Graded potentials 1 Excitatory (+) = EPSP depolarize cell DO IT ii. Inhibitory () = IPSP Hyperpolarize cell DON’T DO IT 4. Action Potentials 1 “all or none” ANION CATION + Inside is negative because of anions What’s responsible for restoring the cell to a resting state so it can fire (an action potential) again? potassium leaves Sodium potassium pump "cleans up mess" to maintain resting potential. How Does Communication Cross the Synapse Otto Loewi Discovers “Vagusstoff” 2. bucket of salt water 3. spilled it over donor heart— transfers peanut 4. goes to recipient heart 1. Discovered first neural transmitter 1 ACETYLCHOLINE (Ach) = “ON” 2 ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (AChE) = “OFF’ Stimulating vagus nerve STOPS HEART electrochemical process COLINE— VITAMIN B COMPLEX DRUGS 3. May Alter CHOLINERGIC DRUGS AND TOXINS 4. Curare 1. Blocks ACh Receptors on Muscle 5. Scopolamine 1. Blocks ACh Receptors on Brain 1 Can’t remember things 6. Atropine 1. Blocks ACh Receptors on Glands 1 Dilates pupils 2 Pre-Anesthetic, dries up glands 7. Botulism 1. Blocks ACh Release 1 Food Poisoning 2 Deadly 8. Nerve Gas (DFP) 1. Blocks AChE 1 Muscles are torn from bone 2 Extremely painful Hippocampus is critical to learning new information. OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTERS 5. Dopamine (DA) 1. Located in left brain 2. reward circuits —> motivation 3. activate when you are buying a product 6. Norepinephrine (NE) 1. Mood 2. Anti depressants 7. Serotonin 1. Number one neuron transmitter for treating depression 2. increases ability to sleep 8. Endorphins OR Neuropeptides 1. Opiate structure — like heroine and morphine
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