New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

week 4 409

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

week 4 409 Bio 409

Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

week 4 notes thurs after test
Evolutionary Biology
Jeffery Bara
Class Notes
Bio, Biology, evolutionarybiology
25 ?




Popular in Evolutionary Biology

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 409 at University of Louisville taught by Jeffery Bara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.


Reviews for week 4 409


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 4 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 3:52 PM  Modern syntheses- resolved apparent conflict btwn mendelian genetics and mech of NS ○ Change in relative abundance of diff phenotypes over time can be linked to changes in freq(relative abundance) of genotypesthat encode(influence)them  Pop genetics- evol viewed as change in allele freq across generations  Hardy-weinberg principle- describes null model of evol- described allele and genotype freqs over time in pops in which no evol is happening ○ Ex) null model graph ○ Pop- group of interbreeding indivs & offspring ○ Life cycle of idealized pop ○ Relative freq- proportion of total and ranges btwn 0-1  freq of AA individuals= (#AA indivs/total# indivs)  Ex) 120 AA, 40As, 40aa..frew A and a? □ # A alleles=(2x120)+40=280 □ Total allele #=2x(120+40+40)=400 □ Freq A=280/400=0.7 □ Freq a= 1-0.7=0.3  Freq of all alleles at a locus taken together=1.0 ○ HW always true:  Freq(A) + freq(a)=1.0  Convention:freq A=p, freq a=q  p+q=1 ○ Freq=prob of selection that allele at random from the pop ○ Heterozygosity-measure of genetic diversity  Freq of hetero in pop(one locus)  Proportionof org's genes that are hetero(all loci)  Prob that if you pulled 2 alleles from pop at random they would not be the same(onelocus)  Observed vs expected heterozygosity: □ Ho= observed heterozygosityis actual freq of heteros in pop □ He= expected freq of heteros can be calculated from allele freq if you make some assumption  To know actual heterozygosityfrom allele freqs, need actual geno freq or allele freq + info that your assumptions are met ○ Null model about evol would describe what happens in pop when no evol is occurring  5 forces of evol: □ Mutation □ Migration □ Selection(diff survival/reproductivesuccess of certain alleles/gene combos) combos) □ Genetic drift(driven by chance events) □ Non random mating ○ Generate zygotes from gametes  Proportionalpunnett square shows possible egg and sperm in proportion to the freq of the alleles in the pop  2 central true facts about prob: ○ Prob of 2 indep events both occurring is the product of their probs  Ex) prob for pair of siblings, older will be a boy and younger girl? □ Prob of girl x prob of boy= .5 x .5=0.25 ○ Prob that one of a possible sset of mutually exclusive events will occur is the SUM of their probs  Ex) prob for given birth that either boy or girl will be born? □ P child is boy + p child is girl= .5+.5=1.0 ○ …both rules used when calculate prob of heteros ○ F(Aa)=2pq only true under HW conds  Transitions from zygotes to adulthood and reproductive age(under HW no changes in allele freq)  HW conclusions: when assumptions hold…  Allele freqs in pop will not change gen after gen  Allele freq are given by p & q, then eq genotype freq qill be p^2 2pq and q^2  If Pop begins out of HWE but all assumptions are met, single gen of random mating will restore HWE eq genotype freqs ○ Alternative hypoth: if assumptions not met, 1 or more of 5 forces of evol must be in play  Allele freq DO change over time  Genotype freqs do not match those expected based on p & q  Adding selection into HW: diff survivorship and reprod incorp's into transition from zygote to adult mathetmaticallyas prob of making it to adult stage ○ Use comparisonof allele freqs btwn gens to evolution  Since allele freqs don’t stay constant over time like HW would say, some evol force must be acting ○ Use comparisonof observed vs expected heterozygosityto detect evol  Predicts under selection observed genotype freqs can fail to match the expected freqs □ Genotype not expected based on allele freqs ○ Use comparisonof observed vs expected heterozygosityto detect evol  Expected freq of B1B2 is 2pq if pop were in HW and there was no selection  If genotype freqs don’t match expected freqs based on HW theory, someevol force like selection must be acting


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.