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Geology Notes Chapter 3

by: Sarah Martin

Geology Notes Chapter 3 Geology 100

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Geology > Geology 100 > Geology Notes Chapter 3
Sarah Martin

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These include completed study questions.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Class Notes
geology notes, Geology, 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12 Continent-continent convergence: 2 continents collide; subduction of oceanic part of plate; subduction brings continents closer; continents collide and crust thickens (form mountains) Continents collision = wide zone of deformation Some pieces get sliced of Thick crust = high elevation (few volcanoes) Since the continental plate is buoyant, subduction ends Collision of India into Asia: caused Eurasian plate to crumple up and override the Indian plate; afterwards, slow continuous convergence of 2 plates over millions of years pushed up Himalayas and Tibetan plateau Transform boundary: earthquakes only; plates move horizontally Moves plates?: mantle convection which causes slab pull and a ridge push Convection current in the outer core -> magnetic field is being generated 9/14 Rate of spreading = width / time duration Ex: rate = 60 km / 2 m.y = 30 km/m.y or 3 cm/yr Geologic features does plate tectonics help explain: test of plate tectonics: Age of Seafloor and thickness of sediment Seafloor youngest near ridge; sediment thickens away from ridge Formation of linear island chains: lines of islands and seamounts; plate moves over a hot spot; continents have rifted apart: outline and geology match Linear islands are greatly related to hot spot activities South america tectonic setting: galapogos; andes; transform boundary (at southern tip); subduction going on east of tip; Andes over subduction zone; trench ofshore; spreading along mid-ocean ridge; subduction beneath western edge; eastern edge of continent not a plate boundary Safest place to live? Not near the plate boundary Mountain ridge + trench = not safe/ subduction/ volcanos/ earthquakes Study Questions: 1) What ideas brought a renewed interest to the idea of continental drift? a Data that a submarine mountain occurred beneath the middle of the atlantic ocean 2) The puzzle-like fit of the continents, similarity of rock types across continents, and glacial evidence all were pieces of evidence supporting Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift. What was another piece of supporting evidence? a Distribution of similar fossils across multiple continents 3) Which areas on this world map are likely to be near a plate boundary? a A,B,C only 4) What occurs at mid-ocean ridges? a Oceanic crust is created 5) Which feature on this figure is formed by melting of mantle above the slab? a D 6) On this figure of a continental collision, which continent would have had subduction-related magmatism before the collision? a The continent on the right 7) On this map of the South Atlantic, which letter is on a transform fault? a B 8) How fast do plates move relative to one another? a Centimeters per year 9) This diagram shows magnetic stripes on either side of the mid-ocean ridge. How many diferent ages of stripes are represented in this diagram? a 6 10) On this map of South America, which features are NOT on a plate boundary? a C and D 9/16 Chapter 4: Salton Trough: granite and metamorphic rocks: convergent Tourmaline in small pockets in granite Ways to view geo: landscape: yosemite nationsal park Outcrop: gray granite Hand specimen: 5 inch containing 3 colors Thin section: … Mineral: solid, natural, inorganic material with an ordered internal structure; ex: halite, diamond; specific chemical composition one or 2 elements How minerals are put together in rocks: Crystalline(made from crystals) and clastic(made from fragments) Crystal form are typically flat, making common shapes Cleavage are big bumps - number of cleavage planes can vary Color (not common form of distinguishing): unreliable because some minerals are diferent colors Luster: how minerals reflect light: metallic, glassy, dull/earthy


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