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Psych 101

by: Zoe Tinsley

Psych 101 PSYC 101 001

Zoe Tinsley

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About this Document

Notes on chapters 1-5
Introduction to Psychology
Miki KItchen
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoe Tinsley on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
1) A scientific study, systematic observations of things, whether it’s how they react with their  environment or whatever else. 2) How to penetrate what it is psychology is all about, makes us interested in the idea that 3) 7 or 8 major perspectives of psychology most people are in clinical 4) Industrial organization 5) We want to change and better our society, research how to make people better learners 6) Freud is the foundation of psychology 7) Carl Rogers, everyone should get a trophy because deep down everyone is good 8) We tend to remember most of our negative memories 9) No one perspective tells the whole story 10)Our surrounding and how we react to our surroundings inform us who we are 11)A lot of times our disconnect can cause us trouble 12)Cognitive behaviorism subfield 13)Testable theories, try to make assessments of everything 14)Predict to make better informed decisions 15)Use theory to make a prediction 16)Design an experiment to test the prediction 17)Perform the experiment 18)Create or modify the theory 19)Repeat 20)Experiment to shake our belief systems 21)3 distinct “flavors” to science: a) Physical: natural science: things b) Biological: Biological life science: plants and animals c) Social: social science: people 22)Critical thought process: O.P.T.I.C. a) Observe: researchers working with rats observe their behavior b) Predict: propose hypothesis based on theory c) Test: collect data d) Interpret: figure out correlation e) Communicate: talk about what we found 23)Descriptive: survey, case study, observe 24)Correlational: do violent video games make people violent? 25)Naturalistic observation: people watching 26)Self­report measures: interviews and surveys 27)Use statistics to understand data 28)Bell curve: see how someone stands outside the norm 29)Reliability: without fail it will be correct 30)Validity: lead to a valid conclusion 31)Consistent results, cannot be reliable without being valid 32)Ethics: rules governing conduct, standards of right and wrong, essential to conducting  research, either with human beings or with animals 33)Do the benefits of the monster study out way the ethical concerns, how could it have been  conducted more ethically? The Biology of Behavior 1) Nature vs Nurture 2) 4 principles: 3) We can’t say because you have this gene you have an addictive personality 4) How the environment influences how and why the genes effect the behavior 5) Genes seldom make behaviors certain, merely gives the foundation, has to be many of those  genes at play 6) Your environment and how you react to it 7) Traits are influenced by many genes, specific genes for certain behaviors 8) Genes and environment 50/50, 40/60, 60/40 9) Epigenics says we can mutant our genes and change our behavior 10)Certain genes get turned on and off at certain points in our life 11)Central nervous system allows us to react to our environment 12)Parasympathetic is a relaxation phase 13)Neurons: sensory, motor, mirror neuron, interneuron 14)Brain: a) Hindbrain­ oldest of the brain functions, controls breathing i) Medulla ii) Pons iii) Cerebellum b) Midbrain­ next to evolve, wakefulness, reticular formation i) Top of brain stem c) Forebrain i) Four lobes (1) Frontal­primary motor cortex, planning, impulse control, abstract thinking etc. (2) Parietal­touch (3) Temporal­auditory cortex (4) Occipital­ primary visual cortex d) Endocrine system i) System f glands that secrete and regulate hormones ii) Hormones carried by blood to tissues throughout body iii) Hypothalamus Sensing and perceiving 1) Seeing is done with the brain as much as it is with your eyes 2) Do you think that color is the property of objects in the world? 3) Signal detection theory­ thresholds vary, depending on motivation 4) Action potential­ always ready to fire 5) Transduction 6) Weber’s law – depends on a constant thing 7) Vision­ eye is the gateway but most of our vision happens in our brain 8) Feature detectors­ allow us to distinguish stuff. Simple cells, complex cells, hypercomplex  cells 9) Trichromatic color theory (young and Helmholtz) a) Red/green b) Black/white c) Blue/yellow 10)Thalamus links together the cone colors into 3 opposite color pairs 11)Hearing­ sound waves traveling through some medium a) Amplitude b) Frequency c) Purity­ complexity of the wave 12)Pain perception a) Skin: nocireceptors i) Temperature ii) Chemical irritation iii) Pressure 13)Gate control theory Human Development 1) Germal stage 2) Embryotic stage – all of our major organs are developing 3) Fetal stage – bone development 4) Five major senses develop at different rates. 5) Experience is critical 6) Depth perception 7) Jean Piaget – early cognitive development a) Sensorimotor Stage i) Ages 0­2 ii) Understand we are using our senses iii) Object permanence 8) Vygotsky – more about social basis of cognitive a) Theory of mind – found around 5­6  9) Kohlberg – development of moral reasoning a) Preconventional level – avoiding punishment/maximizing rewards b) Conventional level – relationships and lawfulness c) Postconventional level – universal moral rules that may trump local rules 10)Thomas and Chess ­ Personality development during infancy a) Easy child (40%) b) Difficult child (10%) c) Slow­to­warm up child (15%) d) 35% other (not classified) 11)Harry Harlow – Monkey study a) Wire “mother” vs. cloth “mother” 12)Developing adolescent – social, physical, cognitive, emotional Chapter 6 consciousness 1) Mindfulness 2)


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