Exceptional Learners Weeks 1-3
Exceptional Learners Weeks 1-3 EDSP 306
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Iverson on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDSP 306 at Montana State University taught by Ronald Joseph Laferriere in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Exceptional Learners in EDSP at Montana State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Exceptional Learners 8/30/2016 “ typically developing peers”- not normal. Abnormal Labels—they need accommodations in services 5 Domains Communication- mostly autism Intelligence Social- emotional/ autism Motor- wheelchairs, cystic fibrosis Emotional- emotional disorders Sensory hearing/ seeing Child Development stages Infant- 0-36 months Preschool ( 3-5 years) Early Elementary ( 6-10) Preadolescent ( 10-12) Adolescent ( 13-`18) Young adulthood ( 19-24) Co morbidly- degree to which 2 disabilities can co-exist Visible vs. Invisible disabilities Visible- you can see them and they are obvious Invisible- disability not visible not obvious Visible—missing limb, downs syndrome, children in wheelchairs, blind Invisible- learning disibilities—average to above average in intelligence, reading, more difficult to diagnose, say their disability is because of internal traits such as lack of motivation, intent being bad – attribution theory At risk—children who have a grater than unusual chance of developing a disability Use- “exceptionality” not handicapped or disability Self- labeling—kids think they are bad/ dumb Benefits of Labels—children are not labels Makes special needs more visible to public/ policy makers Can lead to acceptance of a typical behavior Be useful in treatment and developing strategies Communicate with professionals and explain why Assist in funding in research Disadvantages Focuses on what students can’t do Stigmatizing Labeled minorities ( black and NA) Labeling is expensive Self fulfilling prophecy “ pygmallion effect—rate kids lower when treated differently Use people first language Johnny is eligible for services in the resource room under the learning disability Stats 9-11% of age possibility have disabilities 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in regular classrooms. Autism (1993) depression and turrets are on the rise Montana leads in brain damage- alcohol abuse, outdoor activities, vehicle accidents, guns High incidence vs. low incidence High in incidence happens frequently, low incidence doesn’t happen as frequently ** Most children with disabilities “ high incidence” children with mild disabilities spend most of their day in the classroom funding Huge issue High needs children can be very expensive Special ed law is a federal law ( promise 40% have given 26%) state share 33% local tax 41% Full funding means 40% of the actual expenditures for special education Special Education and Related Services Individual education plan ( IEP) – formal ( Federal but different states have different formats) - Parents have the right if they should have IEP- at 16 children can decide if they want to keep it. - Special ed students have access to the same programs as the other students’ - Teacher attends IEP meeting – have to provide info such as IQ test - IEP specifies the child’s current level of functioning and how the disability affects the progress and functioning. - LRE – children can only be moved to a separate place iff the nature and severity of disabilities is such that they can’t receive appropriate education. - Every kid gets end of state test but with accommodations Phases ( page 37). 1. Initiating the Referral 2. Assessing Student Eligibility and Educational Need 3. Developing the IEP Determining LRE Six Principles of IDEA 1. Zero Reject- schools must educate all children with disabilities 2. Free appropriate Public Education: An IEP must be developed for each child FAPE- free and appropriate public education Least restrictive ( maximum extent appropriate) - will be educated with other students without disabilities 3. Non Discrimination Evaluation -Prevent cultural or racial discrimination 4. Parental Rights- Due process safeguards Includes Written notice Consent ( level and placement) Notice of procedural safeguards ( once yearly) Mediation Due process hearings Parent and student participation and shared decision making - Make positive relationships with the parents - “ I look forward to working with you and our child to give him the services he needs” The Americans With Disabilities Act ( ADA) Purpose- “ to prevent discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, programs and services provided by state and local governments, goods and services provided by private companies and commercial facilities. “ Also to change this discrimination and affirm the rights of more than 50 million Americans with disabilities to participate in the life of their community” ( page 13) Major Provisions of ADA - Employment, transportation, public accommodations, Government and telecommunications Why are laws governing in the education of exceptional children necessary? - Exclusionary Past Inhumane treatment, segregation 1922 council for exceptional children ( CEC) 1949 United Cerebral Palsy Orgnaization 1950 National Association of Retarted Children ( NARC) 1961 ( Autosim group 1964 Brown vs. Board Public Education of Topeka Ruled against segregating students according to race Supreme court ruled all public education must be available to all children 1973 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Declared that a person cannot be excluded from any program receiving federal funds on the basis of disability version Americans with disabilities Anti discrimination act Ensured access to federally funded programs for all people regardless of disability Currently many children are on 504 plans Basic example- building a ramp for a wheel chair bound individual Kid who has ADD can’t go to MOR – violation 504 IDEA 1975- PL142 Ensuring all children are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education IEP and LRE ESSA- Every student succeeds act 1975-1985 students placed in “ special ed” rooms” I IEP team decides where the student goes- special ed classroom or classroom Want para aide—not have job by the end—goal is for kid to be independent Team determines alternate assessment—have to take it, but if severe can have alternate assessment 1964- Americans with Disabilities Act—Emancipation—prevents discrimination on the basis of 1. having a physical mental impairment 2. Intent- fair and level playing field not discriminating those with disabilities. 1985 Preschool Act - Provide services for 3-5 year olds responsibility of school ( schools) 1986 - 0-36 months- disabilities needs different agency 2004 - IDEA Reauthorization—individual disability education act - Critical issues- disproportionality 2015 ESSA – Every student succeeds Act- more authority more strength from State IEP vs. Section 504 - After 16 have to talk about post school - Give special ed kids report cards - IEP effect sports- has to be reasonable, can participate - “ an IEP is concerned with ensuring access to a free and appropriate education designed to provide educational benefit, a 504/AA plan provides for reasonable accommodations or modifications as a fmeans to “ create a fair and level playing field” for a student” ( 44). Section 504 - Accommodations - IDEA “ special ed” - Does not fund schools - Parents can sue 504 - Does not require a written IEP document Parental Rights- for special ed students - Access to records- don’t have access until you are their teacher - Informed consent - Initial evaluation every three years. Now can waive the right to have evaluation - Can file complaints - Independent educational evaluation- just to consider it not least restrictive environment ( LRE) an obligation to just take their word - Private school placement- doesn’t provide as many services - Due process hearing- not happy about what’s going on in the school - Age 18 can notify parents, they can sign off on their own IEP, parents can get legal custody of their child’s educational decisions Discipline ( federal laws) - Suspension/ expulsion- higher rate for NA/ kids with disabilities - A child may be suspended for up to 10 days- after 10 days it is a “ significant change in placement” and possible violation of FAPE ( federal law) - If a student brings drugs, weapons engages in injury- alternate setting for 45 days ( 9 weeks) – because of special ed Manifestation determination - Was the incident caused by disability? - Was the incident caused by the districts failure to implement the IEP- child returns with revisions in IEP - Double standard- other schools Highly Qualified Teachers ( HQT) you have to give the grade - When special ed teachers don’t know how to teach other subjects, strong collaborative role with teacher—ss teacher tells special ed teacher what they are learning in class - FAPE requirement – IDEA must be aligned with the states academic content standards for the grade in which the child is enrolled. IEP is written with common core standards —Special ed students have access to the general curriculum and common core. Inclusion and Multidisciplinary Collaboration Terms- mainstreaming not used - Inclusive education—educating in normal classroom services and supports needed Full inclusion- no law that it is required for special ed kids to bein the classroom 100% of the time not required by IDEA - LRE- removal from the classroom happens when disability is such that education isn’t being achieved Evidence Based Inclusive schools - Diversity, acceptance, belonging - Formal and natural support - Formal- ex aide, natural- family friends and classmates - Talk to kids in a positive way be careful don’t talk about IEP or special ed - Age appropriate classrooms LRE- Don’t put a kid with a mind of a second grader in second grade if he is older - Don’t judge parents- help them with educational programs hw club etc Callobration - Effective inclusive practice—strong multidisciplinary callboration between general ed teachers and special ed staff and parental involvement Inclusion—more of a demand for younger grades, secondary functional skills LRE vary for each child in accordance with their needs Issues - Peer support - Peer tutoring - Peer mediated inclusion - Cooperative learning - Parent and student presentations - Psycho ed with general ed students - Reverse inclusions—so severe regular ed into special ed classroom- working with class as a whole Teacher Perspectives - Factors - Training - Personnel resources - Material resources - Class size - Severity of disability - Expertise, experience and quality of special ed and support staff - No significant detrimental effects on the achievement and performance of children without disabilities/ some research shows improvement Least Restrictive Environments 1. Most inclusive- student placed in a general classroom, no additional or specialized assistance II. Student placed in a general classroom, the special education teacher in a conductive role, provides assistance to elementary ed teacher III. Student placed in a general classroom for most of day, attends special ed resource room for specialized education. IV. Student placed in special ed class for most of school day, attends genral class in subject areas consonant with capabilities. V. Student placed in full time special ed class in general ed school VI. Student placed in separate school for children with special needs. VII. Student educated through homebound or hospital instructional program. Child find- refers to school districts, legal obligation to locate and identify children with disabilities Child find screening- 0-5 performed yearly using the dial- 3 screening tool Referral process- do something before you refer him, can’t evaluate him for special ed no disability/ exposure yet ( Required in Montana) Prereferral Process • Essentially what happens at a pre-referral team meeting is that the referring teacher brings the concern to the team and the team assists with developing an intervention and then monitoring that child •Once interventions have been implemented for a significant amount of time, the team reconvenes and determines – if the intervention was successful- then no further intervention necessary – If intervention was unsuccessful, the team could decide to develop further interventions or to refer the child for consideration for speci Student Assistance Team- refer child to this team. School wide assistance team to set up interventions. Comprehensive Evaluation - Comprehensive - Multidisciplinary - Use more than one assessment technique - Address classroom based assessment - Include observation of child in school setting - Don’t refer until At least 5 weeks want to try stuff first, minimizes cultural ias - A TEAM decision that can be vetoed by parents Preschool Act ( 1985). - Early interventions for children with disabilities, significant positive outcomes - 3-5 IDEA schools responsibility to provide those services Infant Toddler Act - (0-36 months) - Developmental delays through an IFSP ( part C of IDEA) - 10% of Head Start program needs to include children with disabilities ( Family Outreach is typically responsible in Montana) Developmental Delays ( severe delay ( 1 area) or moderate delay ( 2 areas) - Physical - Communication ( ex no talking at 2) - Cognitive ( eg. Downs) - Social or emotional eg autistic/ crying when held - Adaptive behavior Child with disability- label when not clear Point is to provide services Goals for Infant Toddler Conditions of established risk- high probability of resulting in developmental delay Biological - Chromosomal abnormalities - Genetic, congenital disorders - Sensory impairments - Nervous system disorders - Exposure to toxins - FAS ( fetal alcohol syndrome) - Severe attachment disorders - Low birth rate - Failure to thrive - Hemorrhaging at birth - Chronic lung disease Environmental Risk - Parental substance abuse - Poverty - Homelessness - Domestic violence - Teen pregnancy - Abuse/ neglect IFSP ( Individual Family service plan - Infant, toddler ( Table 3.2) - Family receives services, priorities, concernts - Present levels functioning - Measurable outcomes - Early intervention services - Natural enviornments where services will occur - Appt. of case manager - Transition to preschool IFSP and IEP goals and objectives - Functionality - Generality - Instructional context - Measurability - Relation between long- range goals and short term objectives IDEA requires that early intervention services be provided in natural environments to the greatest extent possible. Preschool Autistic program—Behavior problems were screaming, non-compliant, aggressions Communication – through signs The more you engage kids, the less behavior problems there will be Secondary Education and Transition to Adult Life - Long term data on students with disabilities is bad - Graduation rates lower - Employment rates lower ( 41% unemployed) - Post-secondary ed ( 28% don’t attend) Individual Transition Plan- required 16 and over, need measurable and post-secondary goals Example: Marie will be actively employed in a independent living service business one year after her graduation. Person Centered transition planning- understanding and commitment to each student’s needs and preferences Severe disabilities- focus on functional skills Milder/ learning disabilities- self advocacy, using tech General ed—have IEP goals which specific what the expectations- goals maybe aligned with transition gaols - Have regular diplomas - Some adult residence options- group and foster homes - Related services- services provided to help benefit them from special ed ( OT, the bus, PT) - Supplemental aides/ services- inclusion- PT, school psychologist -
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