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Intro to Biology 1 week 1 notes

by: Alex Weiers

Intro to Biology 1 week 1 notes BIOL 1103K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > BIOL 1103K > Intro to Biology 1 week 1 notes
Alex Weiers

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these are the lecture notes from week 1 as well as additional notes from the homework.
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Blaustein
Class Notes
Biology, week, 1, Lecture, notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Weiers on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
What is life? Bio=life Biology = the study of living things 7 Characteristics of life 1)Organized structures -Biosphere -ecosystem -community -population -organism -organ system -organ -tissue -cell – life emerges, basic unit of all life, can be multicellular -organelle -molecule -atoms 2)homeostasis (remaining stable)- active maintenance of complex structures 3) growth 4)energy and material acquisition- (metabolism) - new forms 5) adaptive response capability 6) reduction 7) evolution a. genes b. mutations c. natural selection d. adaptations 5 kingdoms -cell type - prokaryote and eukaryote a. both have ribosomes b. both have genetic material c. both have cell membrane - prokaryote a. bacteria b. 100 times smaller tan eukaryotic - eukaryotic - fungi - human - membrane bound organelle - contains nucleolus which contains DNA -cell number (unicellular, multicellular) - nutrient acquisition 5 Kingdoms - Kingdom Moneta (prokaryotic) - Kingdom Protista – unicellular – eukaryotic - Kingdom Fungi – eukaryotic, multi cellular, absorptive - Kingdom plantae- glucose thru photosynthesis - Kingdom Animalia- ingressive Scientific principles 1. Natural causality 2. Uniformitarianism  time and space 3. Common perception Scientific method 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis-> doesn’t have to be be correct 3. Experimentation 4. Reevaluation 5. Conclusion  theory Ecology- interrelationships between organisms and their environment 1. Organism- environment 2. Organism a. Intraspecific b. Interspecific Population- all members of a particular species which interbreed Community- all members of a particular sharing the same habitat Ecosystems- biotic and abiotic components of a habitat Biosphere- all ecosystems on a planet Environment - Sunlight - Temperature - Water and salts  marine vs. fresh H20 - Oxygen- aerobes vs. anaerobes - Metabolic wastes- h2s, methane - Nutrients - Ph Autotrophs- monosaccharides - Self feeders - Glucose and carbs - Chemical bond energy - Photosynthesis - Chlorophyll and acc. Pigments Heterophs – E from autotrophs - Consumer - Sugars and starch vs. cellulose - Strategies o Primary heterotroph  Leaf vs. seeds and fruit o Secondary o Tertiary o Omnivores o Decomposers o Detritus feeders Food chains – linear chain Food webs- all chains together Energy flow - Trophic levels - Rule of ten - Ecological pyramid - Pyramid of numbers o Biomass energy - Bio accumulation or biological magnification Trophic levels 1. Producers 2. Primary 3. Secondary 4. Techiary Biochemical cycles - Hydrological cycle (water cycles aquifers  underground reservoirs replenish able vs. fossil H20 carbon cycle organisms= 49 % C by dry weight Global warming Exponential growth – birthrate > death rate Boom and bust cycle – abiotic - Abundant resources/ favorable climate lead to growth - Unfavorable abiotic factors lead to death o Example: house flies and other short lived insects - Density independent limits on population growth o Predication o Parasitism o Pathogens o Competition - Density goes up, predication goes up - All are community interactions: competitions occur within populations as well i.e. Food Ecological niche - The role of organisms in its environment - Include physical home and lifestyle - Intraspecific competition ** no two specifies can occupy the same niche overlap reduce overlap: 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Niche speciation- evolutionary trend (change overtime) Symbiosis ( any long term interaction between members or species) score relationship! - Parasitism (+,-) - Commensalism (+,0) - Mutualism (+,+) Predication - Predator/ prey cycles - Predator regulates population size - Keystone predication o Ie. Sea star feeds on 13 species of animals… low interspecific competition. Population patters (demographics) - Spatial - Temporal – time Special distributions 1. Aggregate – gathering for a reason 2. Uniform- territorial 3. Random Survivorship curves 1. Convex- death rate- post reproductive 2. Constant- rate of change = constant 3. Concave- rate of death high b- selected 1. Many young 2. Small young 3. Rapid maturation 4. Decreased parental character 5. Reproductive once K- selected (carrying capacity 1 or 2) 1. Few young 2. Larger young 3. Slow maturation 4. Increased parental care 5. Reproduce many times Ecological Succession - No previous community - Colonize on bare ground - Ex. Stone mountain, Panola Mountain Secondary Succession - Previous community wiped out - Ex. Farm field o Forest fire


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