HIST 1005 Week 4 Notes
HIST 1005 Week 4 Notes HIST 1005
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Jason Wolfe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Rise of the Shang State (1600-1045 BCE) After the floods, we see a rise of Shang Shang developed foundation myths to unify the state o Stories collected in the “Bamboo Animals” Geographical boundaries are not clearly defined Their religion was based on ancestral worship (more focused on humans than on Gods) Co-opted the Monshu culture Justified rule by heredity Called any other practicing culture “Fang” – emphasis on self vs. other, which causes more wars Tang – the first Shang ruler that defeated Xia King o Shang capitals were very mobile, without a central city state, and he would visit the city states o The population was dispersed roughly even throughout o The city states often acted autonomously but still paid tribute to the king State Formation State grew from agriculture (rice and millet) and Bronze age technology Controlled access of metal industry Longshan people introduced elements of the state: o Bronze industry based on copper o Pottery-making o Divination using animal “oracle” bones o Standardized architectural forms and walled towns Dynasty Lineage of hereditary rulers – offered stability for state Written records o Writing could have developed in China 5-6,00 years ago but was likely lost from writing on bamboo paper that decomposes after a few years Tribute – giving taxes and military service to the king for the good of the stat Elaborate rituals – using oracle bones for advice on things in the future like whether to go to war or if one was going to have a boy or girl Centralized forms of control – the strong leader would visit all the states, which increases respect for the leader and provided stability Expanded and protected borders, often over bronze o Used horses and chariots – Shang chariot’s were often better than the earlier chariots since they used interchangeable parts, which made them more efficient with quicker repairs Did not use chariots often due to large standing army Metalworking, agriculture, and tribute Agriculture is important in maintaining power o Rulers controlled their own farms o New technologies led to a rise in food production Drained low-lying fields and removed forests to add land Used farm tools (stone plows, spades, and sickles) Cultivated silk worms and other animals Tracked growing seasons – early stages of astronomy and meteorology Developed 12 month calendar with 360 days and a lunar calendar, aiding in tide prediction Divination causes people not to question things, which allowed for a great amount of stability The Hebrews “The Children of Israel” Israelites technically means soldiers of God Hebrew Bible/Old Testament – tells us a lot of what we know about the Hebrews by setting up rules for life and giving a history of the world as they knew it (not extremely reliable, not written by historians) Descendants of Abrahams – believed they were personally descendants of Abraham Gave legacy of monotheism Migration to Egypt (2000-1500 BCE): Hebrew people become enslaved by Egyptians (Pharaoh Ramsey II) Moses frees them in 1250 BCE (book of Exodus) Move out of Egypt to Palestine, where people are there and they assimilate The United Kingdom and Hebrew Political Influence (12 tribes under 1 rule) Kings Saul (1020-1000 BCE) David (1000-970 BCE) – a man who has several wives sees a woman in a bathtub that he wants. Yet, she is married to a soldier. He sends her husband to war, and the husband dies. The woman becomes one of his wives. o Ironic because Hebrew religion praises moral principle o Relocated capital to Jerusalem Solomon (970-930 BCE) – known for being wise o Builds temple in Jerusalem that holds the Arc of the Covenant (holds the tablet of the original 10 commandments) The Divided Kingdom Disagreement over linage for reign over kingdom after Solomon 10 tribes in North and 2 in the South Kingdom of Israel o 10 northern tribes o Capital is Samaria Kingdom of Judah o 2 southern tribes o Capital is Jerusalem Assyria conquers Kingdom of Israel (722 BCE) o To keep empire stability, Assyrians killed many people, kept the intellectuals, and spread any surviving members around in order to force them to assimilate Chaldean “Neo-Babylonians” conquer Kingdom of Judah (586 BCE) o Destruction of any Hebrew kingdom o There will be no Hebrew nation until 1948 o Babylonian captivity until then o Jerusalem destroyed Spiritual Dimensions of Israel Yahweh (monotheism) – the supreme being o Personal relationship with God (no longer having Gods that are indifferent to humans) o Covenant with Yahweh to respect laws o Laws: 10 commandments and political, social, and economic regulations o Prophets Yahweh’s voice to his people Universalism and social justice (occult altruism Separation between Jews and non-Jews Empire vs. Kingdom Empires have colonies/territories and are focused on spreading out their kingdom and acquiring other’s land and resources -Generally have different ethnic groups being ruled over by the one kingdom, forcing them to assimilate Assyrian Empire Spoke the Semitic language First to promote “ethnic cleansing” – called Assyrianization, forced a process of assimilation Iron weapons allowed them to expand their empire – could outfight bronze age technology To combat walled cities, they would climb the walls Ashurbanipal (669-626 BCE) – greatest Assyrian leader, empire at peak during his rule Assyrians worshiped the God Ashur who wanted them to conquer the world After so many victories, the people truly believed, saying, “God is on our side.” Governing empire: Absolute kings Well-organized – able to collect taxes and war booty from conquered territories to help pay for military Military: improved warfare, started the beginnings of modern warfare Had a large military (about 50k) Discipline – had a more professional outlook by paying the military that ensured their loyalty Iron weapons Different tactics – using cavalry (domestication of horses) allowed them to change tactics quickly Used terror as an instrument of warfare – (aka psychological warfare) killed nearly everyone when they conquered territories, made bowls and cups of the skulls of their defeated, a form of propaganda Empire Falls Apart The last charismatic strong leader dies His next successor is not as great Civil war occurs when all the groups that were forced to assimilate to team up against Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Women in Assyria are more restricted than in Samaria or Old Babylonia o Had little control over their lives o Inheritance passed through the male line o Introduced “veiling” – controlled movement and access of women o All respectable women had to veil o Prostitutes would be killed or beaten for veiling Neo-Babylonian Empire The Chaldeans (about 15 million people) Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 BCE) – conquers Israel and destroys temple in Jerusalem o Makes Babylon capital o Creates Hanging Gardens Fell to Persians in 539 BCE after a bunch of bad rulers caused the people to lose faith and give the Persians war advice o Cyrus Cylinder – first declaration of human rights, created by Persian King Cyrus Persian Empire Largest empire in human history, about 35 million people Part of nomadic group that came to Iranian plateau Cyrus the Great (559-529 BCE) – conquered Kingdom of Lydia, Greek city states, and Mesopotamia Cambyses II (529-522 BCE) – conquered Egypt Danus the Great (521-486 BCE) – conquered West India, constructed Persepolis Governing Military had about 150-200k people Allowed their people to maintain personal identity Believed all empires were equal Lingua Franca was official language among the many other local languages Satrapies (provinces) were ruled by Satraps (governors) Meritocracy – merit allows for promotion, mobility in classes Promoted trade: o Built Royal Road from Sardis to Susa o Had standardized currency (coinage) o Standardized weights and measures Downfall They got too big Could not control everyone due to overreach problems
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