Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 3 Notes
Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 3 Notes PBH205
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 4: Epidemiology The Basic Science of Public Health Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: Lecture Notes Sometimes diseases have more than one factor of the disease Epidemiologist look at the trends of the agents and diseases They are always looking at the health status of a community o Look at trends and causes If they are able to cut off a host, agent, or environment, it decreases the chance of getting it Chronic diseases do not have a single cause o They have prolong time to get a reaction Ex. Smoking leads to higher chance of lung cancer o Sometimes it is hard to diagnose what the actual cause of a disease is since the death certificate might say something else Ex. If a person has cancer and they go through heavy chemo treatment and it weakens their immune system and then they die of a cold. On the death certificate it will say that the cold killed them but technically it was the cancer Kinds of epidemiologic studies that are based on the time component o Prospective Looking into the future o Retrospective Looking into the past o Cross selection A snap shot in time Intervention is the best type of study o Very expensive o Have groups of different interventions with at least one control group This sees if the intervention is the cause of it o Need to make sure that the groups are similar Randomization to assign groups Double blind to make the ones being studied and the ones conducting the experiments do not know what they have Issue is that people may not follow the behavior change Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Cohort study is the second best o Less expensive o Need to have a huge amount of people to cover for different confounding variables o People have the choice of whether the people are exposed or not o Not as strong as intervention because they do not have randomization o Issue to isolate which of many factors are responsible for health difference Case control study is the easiest but not the most effective o Have the look at people who already have the disease o Then have to look at people who are similar except for having the disease to have a control group o Have to have to have people remembering things from the past o Can be retrospective or prospective o Issue is the groups are not really comparable Textbook Notes Chapter 4: Epidemiology The Basic Science of Public Health Epidemiology is used to perform public health’s assessment functions o Meaning that they determine if public health interventions are working o They try to find why it is happening John Snow is the father of modern epidemiology o Discovered that cholera was spread by polluted drinking water Epidemiologic surveillance is when the CDC requires certain disease to be reported as soon as ONE case is found Epidemiologist have to ask the what, who, and where questions about diseases Sometimes a disease can be considered an epidemic with just ONE case o It depends how severe the case is High blood counts of white cells is called eosinophils Cancer, heart disease, and other diseases of aging do NOT have one singular cause o Tend to develop over time o Often chromic and disabling instead of rapidly fatal o Cannot be prevented or cured First major epidemiologic study of a chronic disease took place in Framinghan, Massachusetts of heart disease o Found 3 major risk factors High blood pressure High blood cholesterol Found 2 types of cholesterol o Highdensity lipoprotein Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Good Protects o Lowdensity lipoprotein Bad Smoking Found that heavy smoking increases chance of lung cancer “shoeleather epidemiology is “by local health departments provides the front line of defense against acute disease Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Epidemiology is “the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human population” Incidence rates are helpful in determining cause of a disease Prevalence rates are helpful in assessing the social aspect of a disease and planning for health care services Mortality rates are sometimes useful for disease o If a disease is not fatal then it is not at all o If a disease can be cured then it is somewhat helpful o If a disease is fatal then it is the same or close to incidence rates They make charts to figure out the dates of exposure of the disease and where it could have happened Prospective studies start in present and monitor the groups future o Sometimes start in past and work to current Retrospective studies look at past to find cause of current disease There are different kinds of epidemiologic studies o Interventionconducts experiments of treatments Patients are assigned randomly to the control and treatment group Doubleblind is when the doctor AND patient do not know who is receiving actual treatment o Cohortthe people choose whether they are exposed or not Helps contain relative risk Higher than 1.0 means increased risk Exactly 1.0 means no risk Lower than 1.0 means decreased risk o Casecontrol looks at the ill and trace where they were exposed More efficient than cohort studies Finds the odd ratio (exposed group relative risk)/(control group relative risk) Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology Most studies for chronic diseases are hard if not impossible to do o Very hard to alter people’s behavior over long periods Sometimes people do not know what to believe when studies contradict each other Most studies need to be large numbers to be trusted When doing a stud, need to look at the confounding variations There’s an issue with studies being bias o The one conducting the study could only pick people who could prove his or her point o Sometimes the ones being studied lie on the questions that they are asked To prove cause and effect there needs to be a HIGH relative risk factor High hormone injections are not healthy and the few benefits are not worth the risks Ethics play a huge part in conducting experiments on humans o The subjects need to know what they are getting into including possible risks and benefits o Subjects must give consent to be involved o Study needs to be approved by a review board to make sure it is described well With drug trails, they need to list possible side effects If a trail tests a drug against a placebo, there are drugs out for the issues already, it is not reliable to know if it actually helps If a company pays the people to do studies on new drugs, sometimes shows how bias the research will be Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical Chapter 4: Epidemiology The Basic Science of Public Health Alzheimer ’s disease: a degenerative disease of the brain characterized by mental deterioration. It is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and its prevalence increases with age Cancer: disease in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissue and can spread through the blood stream an lymphatic system to other parts of the body Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Incidence: a measure of the number of new cases reported in a given amount of time, usually a year Prevalence: proportion of persons in a population who have a particular disease or attribution at a specified point in time or during a specified time period Mortality Rate: the incidence of deaths per unit of time, most often per year, in a population Intervention: a generic term used in public health to describe a program or policy designed to have an impact on a health problem Intervention Study: an epidemiologic study in which the effect of a intervention on one group of subjects is compared with the effect of a placebo or conventional therapy on a control group; for example, a clinical study Control Group (controls): a group of individuals used by an experiment as a standard for comparisons to see the effect of changing one or more variables in an experimental group Experimental Group: the treated group in a study, in contrast to an untreated or more conventionally treated control group Placebo: a supposedly ineffective pill or agent used in a control group to gauge the effect of an actual treatment in another group. Experimenters often must allow for a placebo effect, a response causes by suggestion Randomization: division of a sample into two or more comparable groups by some random method that eliminated biased selection Clinical Trial: at its best, a study of the effect of some treatment on two (or more) comparable, randomly selected groups (eg. An experimental group that is treated and an untreated or otherwise treated control group) Cohort Study: a study of a group of people, or cohort, followed over time to see how some disease or diseases developed Relative Risk: a comparison of two morbidity or mortality rates using a calculation of the ratio of one to the other Case Control Study: an epidemiologic study that compares individuals affected by a disease with comparable groups of persons who do not have the disease to seek possible causes Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chronic Disease: a disease that is marked by long duration or frequent recurrence, usually incurable but not immediately fatal. Common disease that are considered chronic include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and recently acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cardiovascular Disease: disease of the heart and blood vessels, most commonly causes by atherosclerosis, deposits of fatty substance in the inner layer of the arteries of the heart and may lead to a heart attack. Cerebrovascular disease affects the arteries of the brain and may lead to stroke Confounding Variable: another factor or explanation may affect a result or conclusion Random Variation: the way a coin will successively turn up heads or trails if flipped in just the same way Bias: the influence or irrelevant or even spurious factors or associationscommonly called confounding variableon a result or conclusion
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