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Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 3 Notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to Public Health 205, Week 3 Notes PBH205

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Public Health > PBH205 > Introduction to Public Health 205 Week 3 Notes
Lindsey Notetaker

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About this Document

These are notes that are from the lecture notes and the textbook notes and vocabulary from the corresponding chapters that I find to be interesting and good to know
Introduction to Public Health
Dr. Jin
Class Notes
Public Health, Epidemiology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 4: Epidemiology­ The Basic Science of Public Health Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes   Sometimes diseases have more than one factor of the disease   Epidemiologist look at the trends of the agents and diseases   They are always looking at the health status of a community  o Look at trends and causes   If they are able to cut off a host, agent, or environment, it decreases the chance of getting  it  Chronic diseases do not have a single cause o They have prolong time to get a reaction   Ex. Smoking leads to higher chance of lung cancer  o Sometimes it is hard to diagnose what the actual cause of a disease is since the  death certificate might say something else  Ex. If a person has cancer and they go through heavy chemo treatment and it weakens their immune system and then they die of a cold. On the death  certificate it will say that the cold killed them but technically it was the  cancer  Kinds of epidemiologic studies that are based on the time component  o Prospective  Looking into the future  o Retrospective   Looking into the past o Cross selection  A snap shot in time   Intervention is the best type of study o Very expensive  o Have groups of different interventions with at least one control group   This sees if the intervention is the cause of it o Need to make sure that the groups are similar   Randomization to assign groups   Double  blind to make the ones being studied and the ones conducting the  experiments do not know what they have  Issue is that people may not follow the behavior change  Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Cohort study is the second best  o Less expensive  o Need to have a huge amount of people to cover for different confounding  variables o People have the choice of whether the people are exposed or not o Not as strong as intervention because they do not have randomization o Issue to isolate which of many factors are responsible for health difference   Case control study is the easiest but not the most effective  o Have the look at people who already have the disease  o Then have to look at people who are similar except for having the disease to have  a control group  o Have to have to have people remembering  things from the past  o Can be retrospective or prospective  o Issue is the groups are not really comparable   Textbook Notes Chapter 4: Epidemiology­ The Basic Science of Public Health Epidemiology is used to perform public health’s assessment functions o Meaning that they determine if public health interventions are working o They try to find why it is happening John Snow is the father of modern epidemiology o Discovered that cholera was spread by polluted drinking water  Epidemiologic surveillance is when the CDC requires certain disease to be reported as  soon as ONE case is found  Epidemiologist have to ask the what, who, and where questions about diseases Sometimes a disease can be considered an epidemic with just ONE case o It depends how severe the case is High blood counts of white cells is called eosinophils Cancer, heart disease, and other diseases of aging do NOT have one singular cause o Tend to develop over time  o Often chromic and disabling instead of rapidly fatal o Cannot be prevented or cured First major epidemiologic study of a chronic disease took place in Framinghan,  Massachusetts of heart disease  o Found 3 major risk factors   High blood pressure  High blood cholesterol   Found 2 types of cholesterol o High­density lipoprotein Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Good   Protects  o Low­density lipoprotein  Bad  Smoking   Found that heavy smoking increases chance of lung cancer  “shoeleather epidemiology is “by local health departments provides the front line of  defense against acute disease  Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods  Epidemiology is “the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in  human population”  Incidence rates are helpful in determining cause of a disease  Prevalence rates are helpful in assessing the social aspect of a disease and planning for  health care services   Mortality rates are sometimes useful for disease  o If a disease is not fatal then it is not at all o If a disease can be cured then it is somewhat helpful o If a disease is fatal then it is the same or close to incidence rates  They make charts to figure out the dates of exposure  of the disease and where it could  have happened   Prospective studies start in present and monitor the groups future  o Sometimes start in past and work to current  Retrospective studies look at past to find cause of current disease   There are different kinds of epidemiologic studies  o Intervention­conducts experiments of treatments  Patients are assigned randomly to the control and treatment group  Double­blind is when the doctor AND patient do not know who is  receiving actual treatment  o Cohort­the people choose whether they are exposed or not  Helps contain relative risk   Higher than 1.0 means increased risk  Exactly 1.0 means no risk  Lower than 1.0 means decreased risk o Case­control looks at the ill and trace where they were exposed  More efficient than cohort studies   Finds the odd ratio  (exposed group relative risk)/(control group relative risk) Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology  Most studies for chronic diseases are hard if not impossible to do o Very hard to alter people’s behavior over long periods  Sometimes people do not know what to believe when studies contradict each other   Most studies need to be large numbers to be trusted   When doing a stud, need to look at the confounding variations   There’s an issue with studies being bias  o The one conducting the study could only pick people who could prove his or her  point o Sometimes the ones being studied lie on the questions that they are asked   To prove cause and effect there needs to be a HIGH relative risk factor   High hormone injections are not healthy and the few benefits are not worth the risks  Ethics play a huge part in conducting experiments on humans o The subjects need to know what they are getting into including possible risks and  benefits  o Subjects must give consent to be involved  o Study needs to be approved by a review board to make sure it is described well  With drug trails, they need to list possible side effects   If a trail tests a drug against a placebo, there are drugs out for the issues already, it is not  reliable to know if it actually helps   If a company pays the people to do studies on new drugs, sometimes shows how bias the  research will be Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical  Chapter 4: Epidemiology­ The Basic Science of Public Health  Alzheimer ’s disease: a degenerative disease of the brain characterized by mental  deterioration. It is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and its prevalence  increases with age   Cancer: disease in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade  nearby tissue and can spread through the blood stream an lymphatic system to other parts  of the body  Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Incidence: a measure of the number of new cases reported in a given amount of time,  usually a year  Prevalence: proportion of persons in a population who have a particular disease or  attribution at a specified point in time or during a specified time period   Mortality Rate: the incidence of deaths per unit of time, most often per year, in a  population  Intervention: a generic term used in public health to describe  a program or policy  designed to have an impact on a health problem  Intervention Study: an epidemiologic study in which the effect of a intervention on one  group of subjects  is compared with the effect of a placebo or conventional therapy on a  control group; for example, a clinical study  Control Group (controls): a group of individuals used by an experiment as a standard  for comparisons to see the effect of changing one or more variables in an experimental  group  Experimental Group: the treated group in a study, in contrast to an untreated or more  conventionally treated control group   Placebo: a supposedly ineffective pill or agent used in a control group to gauge the effect of an actual treatment in another group. Experimenters often must allow for a placebo  effect, a response causes by suggestion  Randomization: division of a sample into two or more comparable groups by some  random method that eliminated biased selection  Clinical Trial: at its best, a study of the effect of some treatment on two (or more)  comparable, randomly selected groups (eg. An experimental group that is treated and an  untreated or otherwise treated control group)  Cohort Study: a study of a group of people, or cohort, followed over time to see how  some disease or diseases developed   Relative Risk: a comparison of two morbidity or mortality rates using a calculation of  the ratio of one to the other   Case Control Study: an epidemiologic study that compares individuals affected by a  disease with comparable groups of persons who do not have the disease to seek possible  causes Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of Epidemiology Introduction to Public Health-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Chronic Disease: a disease that is marked by long duration or frequent recurrence,  usually incurable but not immediately fatal. Common disease that are considered chronic  include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and recently  acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)  Cardiovascular Disease: disease of the heart and blood vessels, most commonly causes  by atherosclerosis, deposits of fatty substance in the inner layer of the arteries of the heart and may lead to a heart attack. Cerebrovascular disease affects the arteries of the brain  and may lead to stroke   Confounding Variable: another factor or explanation may affect a result or conclusion  Random Variation: the way a coin will successively turn up heads or trails if flipped in  just the same way  Bias: the influence or irrelevant or even spurious factors or associations­commonly  called confounding variable­on a result or conclusion


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