Bio1107K, Week 5 Notes
Bio1107K, Week 5 Notes BIOL 1107K
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany B. on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107K at Georgia Gwinnett College taught by Latanya Hammonds in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I w/Lab in Biology at Georgia Gwinnett College.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
9.16.16 Biology1107KNotes[Week5] Lecture Notes Review When you join two carbohydrates together,youtake out water andform a glycosidic bond with oxygen When you join two amino acids takes out water andforms a peptide bond When you join two nucleotides together,youtake out water andform a phosphodiester bond. Lipids Partially hydrophobic; hydrocarbons No monomers Waxes Steroids—relatedto cholesterol Fats are constructedfrom two types of smaller molecules:glyceroland three fatty acids o Glycerol is a three-carbon alcoholwith ahydroxylgroupattachedto each carbon o A fatty acid consists of acarboxylgroupattachedto a longcarbon skeleton The glyceroland3fatty acids are joinedtogether in a3 ester bonds Number of molecules -1=amount of water takenout So if we have (1 glycerol+ 3 fatty acids) – 1O= 3 H o The major function of fats is energy storage. Humans andother mammals store their fat in adipose cells. Fats give you more energy than sugars do.(sugars have more oxygen storedin the bonds than fats) Phospholipids o Two fatty acids and a phosphate groupare attachedto glycerol o Two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic,but the phosphate groupand its attachments form ahydrophilic head. Saturatedvs.Unsaturated o Palmitoleic acid (fatty acid) o Saturated—the fatty acids with hydrocarbons chains all filled up with hydrogens (just one double bond).The tight organization of the molecules makes it solidat room temperature. On the subway everyone is packedreally tightly. CH —CH 2—CH —CH 2… o Unsaturated—just needs one double boundbetween carbons to make it unsaturated.Kinks/bends in the carbon chain make it so that its liquid at room temperature. On the same subway,if you want more space you bendyour elbows.This puts akink in the organization. CH —CH 2—CH =CH —CH 2… o A diet rich in saturatedfats may contribute to cardiovascular disease through plaque deposits o Hydrogenationis the process of convertingunsaturatedfats to saturatedfats by adding hydrogen. Hydrogenatingvegetable oils also creates unsaturatedfats with trans double bonds. These trans fats may contribute morethan saturatedfats to cardiovascular disease. See Week 3,pg. 2 Notes for info on Trans fats Van der Waals Interactions: Weak interaction of electron clouds in non-polar regions of molecules Involves akindof “synchrony” in the movement of electrons around two or more atoms The gecko has many microscopic hairs on its feet,or setae (singular seta), that increase the Van der Waals forces between its feet and the surface. 2 9.16.16 Large BiologicalMolecules Components Examples Functions Carbohydratesserveas Monosaccharides:glucose,fructose Fuel;carbon sources thatcan be convertedto fueland buildingmaterial. other molecules or combinedinto polymers Disaccharides:lactose,sucrose Polysaccharides: Strengthens plantcellwalls Cellulose (plants) Stores glucose for energy Starch (plants) Stores glucose for energy Monosaccharide monomer Glycogen (animals) Strengthens exoskeletons andfungal cellwalls Chitin (animals and fungi) Lipids are a diverse group Triacylglycerols (fats or oils):glycerol+ 3 fatty aciImportantenergy source of hydrophobic molecules and are not macromolecules. Phospholipids:phosphate group+ 2fatty acids Lipid bilayers of membranes Steroids:four fusedrings with attachedchemical Componentof cellmembranes groups (cholesterol) Signals that travelthrough the body (hormones) Proteinshave many Enzymes Catalyze chemicalreactions structures,resultingin a Structuralproteins Provide structuralsupport wide range of functions. Storage proteins Store amino acids Transportproteins Transportsubstances Hormones Coordinate organismalresponses Receptor proteins Receive signals from outside cell Motor proteins Function in cellmovement Defensive proteins Protectagainstdisease Nucleicacids store and DNA: Stores allhereditary information transmithereditary Sugar=deoxyribose information. Nitrogenous bases=C,G,A,T Usually double-stranded RNA: Carries protein-codinginstructions from DNA Sugar=ribose to protein synthesizingmachinery Nitrogenous bases=C,G,A,U Usually single-stranded
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