New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 199 Week 3 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

BIO 199 Week 3 Notes BIO 199

Marketplace > University of Tampa > BIO > BIO 199 > BIO 199 Week 3 Notes
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes from this week's lecture.
General Biology II
Huber, Daniel
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Biology II

Popular in BIO

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 199 at University of Tampa taught by Huber, Daniel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in BIO at University of Tampa.


Reviews for BIO 199 Week 3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
Thursday, September 15, 2016 Chapters 22+26 BIO 199 Week 3 - Speciation: the appearance of new species is the source for biological diversity - Evolutionary theory must explain: • How adaptions evolve in a population (microevolution) • How new species and lineages originate (macroevolution) - Defining a species • The biological species concept defines species as “groups of actually or potentially interpreting populations which are reproductively isolated from other groups” - members of a species can mate with each other and reproduce offspring that will do the same Reproductive isolation • - Prezygotic • impedes mating between species • Behavioral: organisms perform a particular behavior, such as a mating dance or song, to gain access to mates Ecological: differences in habitat prevent closely related species from mating • - Garter snakes live really close to the water but not in it. Their sister species live really close to the bank but not on it. Therefore, ecological isolation is at play • Temporal: differences in breeding season or time of activity (diurnal/ nocturnal) • Mechanical: reproductive structures of closely related species are incompatible - Euhadra snails and their sister species have a difference of one gene—the gene that controls the direction of their shell swirl. This singe gene keeps them mechanically isolated • Gametic: requirement of biochemical compatibility between sperm and eggs 1 Thursday, September 15, 2016 - Postzygotic • Reduced hybrid viability: lack of genetic compatibility results in deformed offspring incapable of surviving • Reduced hybrid fertility: viable offspring tend to be infertile - Types of speciation: • Allopatric (other homeland) speciation - a geographic barrier causes reproductive isolation. • There are squirrels on the north and south rims of the grand canyon that became two separate species due to the geographic barrier of the grand canyon • Sympatric (same homeland) speciation - Reproductive isolation comes about due to something other than a geographic boundary. There are 3 mechanisms of this: • polyploidy: an irregular number of chromosomes - an error occurs during meiosis (gamete formation) that causes the offspring to have a different number of chromosomes than the parent generation. This is very common in plants • habitat differentiation: specialization on unique habitats and/or ecological niches within overlapping populations can lead to speciation - African cichlid fishes: each fish has a different “mouthpiece” and each fills a specific ecological niche • sexual selection: certain traits are chosen for when females look for a mate. Those traits are then making more of a contribution to the gene pool • Adaptive radiations: the diversification of numerous species from a common ancestor due to the origin of adaptive characteristics. This is associated with: - the colonization of new habitats - key innovations: novel anatomic/physiological structures can cause a “surge” in speciation • examples include pharyngeal jaws (second set of jaws in fish) and mineralized tissues (like armor for the organism) 2 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • The time course of speciation - there is no set time frame! - punctuated equilibrium: sudden and dramatic change leads to speciation - gradualism: incremental change over long periods of time leads to speciation - Dramatic changes in biodiversity over evolutionary history are the result of macroevolution - life originated in the water around 3.5 billion years ago - Steps of the origin of life • 1: the synthesis of organic compounds - Miller's and Urey’s experiment simulated the conditions of early earth - inorganic compounds + energy -> organic compounds • energy sources of early earth included lightning, hydrothermal vents, and volcanoes • 2: the abiotic synthesis of macromolecules - includes carbohydrates, lipids proteins, and nucleic acids - organic monomers + energy -> organic macromolecules • 3: Protocells (membrane-bound vesicles) - a spherical shape minimizes reactions between polar (water) and nonpolar (lipids) materials spontaneously forms because polar materials force nonpolar materials out of • the way - the importance of a membrane • homeostasis (the maintenance of a stable internal environment) • a basic membrane for reproduction • metabolism (the summation of chemical reactions which requires a controlled internal environment) 3 Thursday, September 15, 2016 • 4: self-replicating RNA and the dawn of natural selection - The point at which evolution can occur by natural selection - RNA is this original genetic material • single stranded, which makes it simpler than DNA • it contains ribozymes, which are RNA strands that can catalyze their own replication - Key Events in the History of Life • the first prokaryotes - the only form of life from 3.5 to 1.5 billions of years ago (bya) - stromatolites: bacterial mats present today and are found as far back as 2.7 bya - microfossils- ~3.5 bya - earth’s early atmosphere lacked oxygen • cyanobacteria were the first organisms to evolve photosynthesis - consequences of photosynthesis and oxygen • climate: photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, causing a period of global cooling • oxygen toxicity - the presence of oxygen caused the extinction of many anaerobic organisms • aerobic cellular respiration evolved as a mechanism for detoxifying oxygen • the origin of eukaryotes (1.5 bya) - the endomembrane system evolved form the invagination (folding) of the plasma membrane - theory of endosymbiosis: the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts • mitochondria originated from an engulfed aerobic bacteria • chloroplasts originated from an engulfed photosynthetic cyanobacteria • evidence: - both structures have a double-membrane structure 4 Thursday, September 15, 2016 - both structures have their own DNA - both structures can divide on their own inside of a eukaryotic cell • the origin of multicellularity (800 mya) - life progressed form unicellular to colonial to multicellular • advantages of being colonial: division of labor, specialization, energy efficiency - each characteristic of an organism gets improved by being multicellular occurred via the evolution of cellular adhesion proteins • - following the origin of multicellularity, life became macroscopic around the time of the Cambrian explosion (500 mya) • the Cambrian explosion marked the origin of most major extant (living) animal groups • following mass extinction (snowball earth) after which there was little competition (adaptive radiation) • the colonization of land - began ~450 mya - the ozone layer and its UV scattering effects facilitated the transition from the water to land • first came plants and fungi, then invertebrates then vertebrates • mass extinctions (loss of at least 50% of biodiversity) - there have been 5 mass extinctions since the Cambrian explosion (~500 mya) • Permian extinction (250 mya) - volcanic eruptions in Siberia caused the extinction of 97% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species • Cretaceous extinction (65 mya) - a meteor impact in Gulf of Mexico caused the extinction of 75% marine and terrestrial species, including the dinosaurs 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.