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1972 Week 4 Lecture 1 Class Notes

by: Bradleigh Jenkins

1972 Week 4 Lecture 1 Class Notes geog 1972

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Geography > geog 1972 > 1972 Week 4 Lecture 1 Class Notes
Bradleigh Jenkins


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Continuation of Theme 2: Human Transformations of the Earth
Environment-Society Geography
Professor Travis
Class Notes
geography, Environment, Society
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradleigh Jenkins on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to geog 1972 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Professor Travis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Environment-Society Geography in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Tuesday September 13 Week 4 Lecture 1 Summary: Continuation of Theme 2: Human transformation of the earth. Will be moving onto Political Economy (Ch.3 & 4) Earth Systems & Processes Affected Landforms: solid earth, shape of terrain (geomorphology), soil erosion Land cover: main, visible material stuff on the surface. Ex: crops, forests, shrubs, bare soil, water, etc. Hydrosphere: shape & transformation of the land affect the water cycle Evaporation  Transpiration  Precipitation  Infiltration  Storage  Runoff  Biosphere: biodiversity, ecological communities, species population, age structure  Atmosphere/weather/climate: composition, weather & climate. Avg. temperatures, precipitation, wind, etc.  Bio-geochemical cycles: e.g. carbon or nitrogen fluxes, inferred - Radiation balance: Albedo; rough measure of the reflectivity of land cover. Brighter = net radiation has been reduced. Transformation: system changes attributed to human action  State: status of system right now; e.g. forest or grassland  Composition: what is the area made up of? Species mix, land cover, use types.  Fluxes: transfers of energy/mass across spaces and systems. E.g. nitrogen fixation, carbon uptake (sink), release (source), etc.  Storages: Energy/mass at the site; e.g. volume of H2O in a lake, the amount of biomass. Transformation Behavior  Purposeful: got the results that we were looking for  Inadvertent: got results we were NOT looking for  Law of unintended consequences: along with the results that we were looking for, usually there is a handful of other results that we weren’t looking for that come along with those. Baselines Natural: A time in the past; pre-industrial, pre-historic, pre-settlement. Background: background radiation, trace chemicals Reference site: A less perturbed place, for comparison. Usually based in current time Target: cost vs. benefit, threshold of some impacts. Establishes a goal for a future conservation effort. Based in future Driving Forces  I=PAT: Population, affluence (wealth), technology  Political economy: structure of linked economic and political structures; commodities market, globalization, regulations  Socio-cultural: traditions, beliefs, and ideologies; institutions like markets, property rights, resource allocation Tuesday September 13 Week 4 Lecture 1 Hydrological Cycle Humans intercept runoff; increase storage, groundwater.  ET= evapotranspiration  P= condensation and precipitation  Ro= surface runoff  I= infiltration Surface and groundwater storage  GW= groundwater flows Energy/Radiation Balance  Incoming solar short-wave radiation  Reflection back into space by clouds, particles, surfaces  Absorbed into systems: sensible heat, charcoal energy, does work like moving air  Re-radiating: outgoing terrestrial, long wave radiation back into space. Intercepted and re-radiated Human Transformations of Energy/Radiation  Mostly inadvertent  Atmospheric transmission - Pollutants block incoming solar radiation, cool lower layers - Ex: CO2 is transparent incoming; opaque outgoing  Change surface fluxes: absorption & reflection; albedo = % relflected  Change surface storage: pavement, concrete stores more than plants & soil


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