Geog 101 Geog 101
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Introductory Physical Geography
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Phillip Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physical Geography in Geography at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Tools of the Geographer Latitude and Longitude Latitude o North to South o From zero degrees at the equator to 90 degrees north or south Longitude o East to West o Zero degrees at the Prime Meridian to 180 degrees east or west Divided in order from largest to smallest o Degrees o Minutes ‘ (60 minutes to a degree) o Seconds “ (60 seconds to a minute) Can also use UTM How do we show the Earth on Maps? The problem is how we represent a nearly spherical planet on a flat surface The qualities you want to preserve when picking the projection of the map include area, scale, bearing, shape and distance Different General Projection Types o Planar – sphere on a 2-D plane Scale and distance from center constant Distortion at the edges o Conic – sphere onto a cone Preserves direction and area Distorts shape o Cylindrical – sphere onto a cylinder Vertical and horizontal meridian lines Distortion near poles Aspect – the orientation, relative to the sphere, of the conceptual projection surface o Polar – aligns the north-south axis with the projection system’s Useful when one of the poles must lie at the map’s conceptual center o Equatorial – map is centered on the equator, which is set across one of the map’s major axis o Oblique – has neither the polar axis nor the equatorial plane aligned with the projection system Scale How to represent distances Fractional scale Verbal scale Large scale vs. small scale o Globe vs. continent vs. country vs. state, etc. Maps Most important tool Can represent quantitative and qualitative data Used to understand geography o Important to your knowledge of the world Different types o Real (spatial) and virtual (mental) o Can be subdivided by intended purpose Topographic Map Contour line – define elevation o Any deviation indicates an elevation change Interpolation – we use data we know to estimate or calculate data we don’t know Isoline Maps Isotherm – temperature Isohyet – precipitation Isobar – pressure Contour – elevation Other Common Maps Dot maps – used to show the presence of a feature or statistical occurrence and display its spatial pattern Chloropleth maps – used for displaying spatial phenomena by evenly distributing the data within an enumeration unit (set area) Other Geographer Tools GPS GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) Physical and numerical modeling Surveying tools (compass, total station, dGPS) GIS – ArcGIS software, Google Earth Dating methods o Carbon 14 (radiocarbon dating) o Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) o Cosmogenic Burial and Surface Exposure o Radiometric dating
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