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## Geog 101

by: Hallie Notetaker

24

0

2

# Geog 101 Geog 101

Hallie Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.66

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Tools of the Geographer
COURSE
Introductory Physical Geography
PROF.
Phillip Larson
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Geography

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Phillip Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physical Geography in Geography at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Tools of the Geographer Latitude and Longitude  Latitude o North to South o From zero degrees at the equator to 90 degrees north or south  Longitude o East to West o Zero degrees at the Prime Meridian to 180 degrees east or west  Divided in order from largest to smallest o Degrees o Minutes ‘ (60 minutes to a degree) o Seconds “ (60 seconds to a minute)  Can also use UTM How do we show the Earth on Maps?  The problem is how we represent a nearly spherical planet on a flat surface  The qualities you want to preserve when picking the projection of the map include area, scale, bearing, shape and distance  Different General Projection Types o Planar – sphere on a 2-D plane  Scale and distance from center constant  Distortion at the edges o Conic – sphere onto a cone  Preserves direction and area  Distorts shape o Cylindrical – sphere onto a cylinder  Vertical and horizontal meridian lines  Distortion near poles  Aspect – the orientation, relative to the sphere, of the conceptual projection surface o Polar – aligns the north-south axis with the projection system’s  Useful when one of the poles must lie at the map’s conceptual center o Equatorial – map is centered on the equator, which is set across one of the map’s major axis o Oblique – has neither the polar axis nor the equatorial plane aligned with the projection system Scale  How to represent distances  Fractional scale  Verbal scale  Large scale vs. small scale o Globe vs. continent vs. country vs. state, etc. Maps  Most important tool  Can represent quantitative and qualitative data  Used to understand geography o Important to your knowledge of the world  Different types o Real (spatial) and virtual (mental) o Can be subdivided by intended purpose Topographic Map  Contour line – define elevation o Any deviation indicates an elevation change  Interpolation – we use data we know to estimate or calculate data we don’t know Isoline Maps  Isotherm – temperature  Isohyet – precipitation  Isobar – pressure  Contour – elevation Other Common Maps  Dot maps – used to show the presence of a feature or statistical occurrence and display its spatial pattern  Chloropleth maps – used for displaying spatial phenomena by evenly distributing the data within an enumeration unit (set area) Other Geographer Tools  GPS  GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar)  Physical and numerical modeling  Surveying tools (compass, total station, dGPS)  GIS – ArcGIS software, Google Earth  Dating methods o Carbon 14 (radiocarbon dating) o Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) o Cosmogenic Burial and Surface Exposure o Radiometric dating

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