Geog 101 Geog 101
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Phillip Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physical Geography in Geography at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Geologic Hazards SanAndreas Fault California will not fall into the ocean o Will slowly continue to move and change along the fault o Comes onshore at Point Reyes o Goes through the middle of San Francisco Bay Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale 1. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable conditions 2. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings 3. Felt quite noticeably by persons indoors, especially on upper floors a. Many people do not recognize as an earthquake b. Standing motor cars may rock slightly c. Vibrations seem similar to the passing of a truck d. Duration estimated 4. Felt indoors by many, outdoors by few during the day a. At night, some awakened b. Dishes, windows, doors disturbed; walls make cracking sound c. Sensation like heavy truck striking building d. Standing motor cars rocked noticeably 5. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened a. Some dishes, windows broken b. Unstable objects overturned c. Pendulum clocks may stop 6. Felt by all, many frightened a. Some heavy furniture moved b. Afew instances of fallen plaster c. Damage slight 7. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction a. Slight to moderate in well-built ordinary structures b. Considerable damage in poorly built or badly designed structures c. Some chimneys broken 8. Damage slight in specially designed structures a. Considerable damage in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse b. Damage great in poorly built structures c. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls d. Heavy furniture overturned 9. Damage considerable in specially designed structures a. Well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb b. Damage great in substantial buildings with partial collapse c. Buildings shifted off foundations 10. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed a. Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations b. Rails bent 11. Few, if any, masonry structures remain standing a. Bridges destroyed b. Rails bent greatly 12. Damage total a. Lines of sight and level are distorted b. Objects thrown into the air Mega Thrust Tsunamis (Japan and Indonesia) Process at the boundary o Convergent boundary – ocean-continent subduction o Plates locked = stress and deformation o Plates release = earth quake and tsunami Key points o Usually kicked off by Mega Thrust o Occur at subduction zones Examples o Japan, Indonesia, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, parts of Greece, New Zealand, west coast of SouthAmerica Sunda Megathrust, Indonesia December 26, 2004 o ~286,000 dead (world bank estimate) USGS estimate 227,898 o Over 1.6 million displaced o Kicked off by a magnitude 9.1-9.3 Third largest EQ ever recorded o Longest duration of faulting ever recorded Up to ten minutes o Altered the length of day by 2.68 microseconds o Caused the entire planet to oscillate up to one cm and likely triggered other EQs (Alaska) o Energy released was thousands of times greater than the atomic bombs in WWII o Tsunami wave was up to 30 m high Energy in the waves was equivalent to twice the explosive energy released in all of WWII including the atomic bombs Japan, Tohoku Earthquake 2011 o Similar megathrust style movement o 15,883 deaths o 40.5 m at the highest o Traveled up to 10 km inland o Magnitude 9 EQ One of the largest in history Shifted Japan 2.5 meters out towards the ocean o Fifth most powerful earthquake in the world