Mass Media: Notes Since the Start of Class
Mass Media: Notes Since the Start of Class MASS110
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Schoettle on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MASS110 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Shane Frederik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Media in Mass Media Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Intro to Mass Media Shane Frederick, Fall 2016 Notes since the beginning of class/Notes on Chapters 1 through 5 Table of Contents Red: Important terms Green: other important information Purple: names of important people Chapter 1 (Media and Culture) Mass Communication: refers to a message transmitted to a large audience o The information Mass Media: the mode of transportation of mass communication o books, tv shows, etc... Medium=singular form of media Both message and media affect culture Culture and media both influence each other in subtle, complex ways Media fulfills several roles in society: o Entertainment o Education/Information o Serves as a public forum o Acts as a “watchdog” Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press; industrialized by Frederich Koening o First book printed was the Bible th Radio invented in the 20 century TV boomed after WWII Convergence: the coming together of previously distinct technologies 5 kinds of convergence: o Economic: once company has interests across many kinds of media o Organic: multimedia multitasking o Cultural: stores flow across several kinds of media platforms, readers and viewers can “talk back” to culture o Global: distant cultures are able to influence each other o Technological: different kinds of technology merge Cultural values impact mass media, but they change over time Propaganda: type of communication that attempts to persuade the audience for ideological, political, or social purposes o Not inherently good or bad o Used by governments, companies, advertisers, movements, religions, me and you, etc... Gatekeepers: people who decide which stories are considered “newsworthy” o Ex: newspaper editors Cultural Period: time marked by a particular way of understanding the world through culture and technology Modern age marked by Enlightenment Philosophy o Period saw wide expansion of capitalism, colonialism, democracy, and science based rationalism Postmodernity differed from modernity in its questioning of reason, rejection of grand narratives, and emphasis on subcultures o Focused on contingency, context, and diversity Tastemakers: people with access to platforms for mass communication who initiate or drive pop-culture hits o Undermined by the digital age o Ex: Ed Sullivan, Oprah, Rolling Stone, Facebook... Media Literacy: ability to decode or process media messages o Interpret messages with a critical eye o Individual responsibility is crucial When analyzing media messages, consider the message’s author, audience, content, and purpose o Who created the message? Do they have some sort of credibility behind them? o Why was the message created? o Is the message trying to make you think or act in a certain way? o Is someone making money for creating this message? o Who is the intended audience? Chapter 2 (Media Effects) Propaganda and persuasion have long been a part of the interaction between media and culture Most studies on media and behavior reveal correlations but don’t establish direct links o Positively correlated, but can’t prove cause and effect Through media, celebrities have come to signify important cultural values and tendencies New forms of media have revolutionized the way people access and consume media Direct Effects Model: assumed media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions o AKA: magic bullet or hypodermic needle o Has been discredited Agenda Setting Theory: more power to the media o Media determines issues rather than the public o Media tells us not what to think but what to think about Uses and Gratifications Theory: give more active role to media consumers o Do consumers use media to satisfy specific needs or desires Spiral of Silence Theory: Power of majority opinion squashes out minority opinions creating the illusion of consensus Cultivation Analysis: perception of reality through media o Entertainment and news portrays a more violent world Media logic and cultivation theories deal with how much media consumers’ perceptions of reality can be influenced by media messages Symbolic Interactionism: using symbols to communicate (emojis) Media research methods = practical procedures for carrying out a research project o Content analysis o Surveys o Focus groups o Participant observations o Experiments Research methods involve either test subjects (above) or analysis of media o Content o Style o Format o Social roles o Archival analysis Audience interpretation is vital to media studies Media theories generally fall between the active and passive audience interpretations In politics, media studies are often used to support various opinions o Media bias, violence in media, and indecency Chapter 3 (Books) Papyrus scrolls were the earliest forms of books o Superseded in 6 century by the codex Books were handwritten and decorated during the middle ages o Monasteries then were the centers of intellectual life Books were expensive and rare until the invention of movable type o Led to swifter spread of ideas o Led to higher literacy rates among women o Popular literature soon emerged Copyright Law: originally meant to protect authors from censorship and allowed them to profit from their work o First law: England’s Statute of Queen Anne, 1710 o Today, the copyrights are good until 70 years after the author’s death Publishing industry arose o Early printers served as wholesale booksellers th Paperback books began in the 20 century o Much easier to produce, meaning they were cheaper to purchase o Mass market paperbacks o Trade paperbacks (pricier, higher quality) After the American Revolution, books reflected popular concerns about self- determination, freedom, and republican motherhood o Boosted literacy rates among women th ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ was the most popular book in the 19 century o Heightened divisions between the North and South Genre Fiction came to prominence in the 20 century o Children literature, science fiction, mystery, romance... th Second half of the 20 century marked by writers who challenged conformist ideas in the US 21 century so far has been dominated by a number of novel franchises with massive sales and multiple marketing tie-ins Hardcover books are the direct descendant of the codex o Considered more prestigious E-Books make up 3-5% of total sales o Cheaper and more portable o Privacy issues and potential for digital decay Blockbuster Syndrome: publishing industry’s focus only on books with Best Seller potential and ignoring others o Basis of commercial potential vs. literary merit o Some authors are turning away from the Big Six Publishers due to this Book Superstores rose to prominence in the 90’s o Ex: Barnes and Noble o Large numbers of independent bookstores closed as a result Walmart and Costco fuel the blockbuster syndrome Brick and Mortar stores are threatened by online retailers o Ex: Amazon Stores that sell a large volume of books (superstores) can negotiate favorable terms with publishers and give deep discounts to customers Publishing companies made amazon.com change its pricing model to give publishers more control over e-book prices Digital Libraries began with project Gutenberg in 1971 o Hope to raise global literacy rates o Google Books: largest digital library; Open Book Alliance accuses google of monopolizing copyrighted content to make a profit Self-publishing is increasingly popular for amateur and professional writers Print-on-Demand makes it possible for books to never go out of print Chapter 4 (Newspapers) Newspapers existed since ancient Roman times and were the primary print medium for nearly 300 years Modern Newspaper stems from German papers printed in the early 1600’s with Gutenberg’s press o First mass-printed in 1609 o By 1641, almost every country in Europe had a newspaper o First papers in the colonies in 1690 Early European models based on 2 distinct models: o Small, dense Dutch Corantos o Larger, more expensive German Weeklies Press Freedom: o Government regulations o First amendment in 1791, Freedom of the Press o Sedition Act in 1798 Could prosecute those who criticized government The US let this expire and is no longer legit The Associated Press o Created in 1846, still around today o Collaboration of newspapers The Sun o Started by Benjamin Day in 1853 o Was the first Penny Press o Minimized the paper size and used a new 2-cylinder steam engine press, making the paper much cheaper (could produce 15,000 copies/day!) o Transformed the newspaper industry and its readers o Contained news of the day, advertisers, human-interest stories, and police reports Sensationalism: use of crime, sex, and scandal to attract readers o Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolf Hearst o This was known as Yellow Journalism; known for misleading stories, inaccurate information, and exaggerated detail o Ramped up public support of the Spanish American war o Comics: The Yellow Kid Objective journalism resulted in response to sensationalism o Impartial, dignified, trustworthy, unbiased o Information is true o “fair and balanced” o Ex: New York Times “All the news that’s fit to print” o 5 Ws Who, what, where, when, why Inverted Pyramid o Most important information leads the story o Subsequent paragraphs give additional facts o Least important information closes the story o Benefits: Grab people’s attention early Sometimes journalists need to write quickly Easier for both writer and editor Nearly impossible to remain completely objective o Journalists are human and biased to some degree o Many newspapers have systems to help with this Literary Journalism combines the research and reporting of typical newspaper journalism with the writing style of fiction o Tend to focus on the scene by evoking voices and characters inhabiting historical events o Famous people: Tom Wolfe and Truman Capote Advocacy Journalists: encourage readers to support a particular cause Consensus Journalism: encourages social and economic harmony Conflict Journalism: present information in a way that focuses on views outside of the social norm Niche newspapers serve as important media outlets for distinct voices o Members of the underground press o Those serving specific ethnic groups, racial groups, or speakers of a specific language o More mainstream due to the rise of the internet Newspapers control which stories are told and how those stories are told Watchdog Journalism: investigative approach to reporting o Aims to inform citizens of occurrence in government and business TV contributed to the decline of reading newspapers and has impacted visual and journalistic approaches Key players in newspaper market: o USA Today o Wall Street Journal o NY Times o LA Times o Washington Post o Chicago Tribune Readership declining since the invention of the radio The internet has had the most profound effect o Readers turn to free online sources of information Financial challenges led to the rise of newspaper chains and the creation of joins operative agreements In 2002, 22 of the largest newspaper chains owned 39% of all newspapers in the country. The 4 largest were: o Gannett, Tribune Co., NYT Co., McClatchy Co. Challenges to print newspapers: o Online media o Amateur bloggers o Professional online news operations Internet reporting can break news as it happens and doesn’t have space limitations o However, nonprofessional internet news isn’t subject to credibility checks Most online newspapers don’t require subscriptions Advertising is significantly less expensive online vs. in print Chapter 5 (Magazines) First magazine published in Germany in the 17 century During the 17 and 18 centuries, publishers founded several different types of periodicals aimed at diverse audiences across Europe In the 1830’s there was a mass circulation of magazines in the US o Less expensive magazines were available to a wider audience, prompting greater consumption th Magazines dramatically changed in the US in the early 20 century Time and Newsweek dominate the industry today With magazines, advertising and marketing changed o Costs skyrocketed; individuals across the country would now see and be influenced by magazine ads 20 century brought about new kinds of magazines o Literary, Pulp, Fan, Teen, and Celebrity magazines o Contributed to shared pop. Culture Highest US circulations among contemporary magazines: o AARP The Magazine o AARP Bulletin o Reader’s Digest Women’s magazines made up a large portion of the medium o Ex: Cosmopolitan Magazine formats generally offer more space for coverage than newspapers o Can give readers more in depth information about events Advertisers provide approximately half of all magazine revenue o Can have some control over printing stories due to this Niche Publications include magazines that cater to hobbyists in: o Sports, crafts, music, pets... o Some modern niche publications hearken back to pulp magazines of the 30’s o Fewer readers, but the ads can go towards a more targeted demographic Print journals are adapting to the online market by offering web-only features o Blogs, podcasts, daily news updates, etc... Regularly updating their websites may help publications remain relevant Magazines archive back issues on their websites o Readers can search for old articles or editions o Many are free, but some publications require subscription fees
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