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CRM 102 Week 3 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

CRM 102 Week 3 Notes CRM 102

Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

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These are the notes from this week's lecture.
Introduction to Criminal Justice
LaRose, Anthony P.
Class Notes
Criminal Justice
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 102 at University of Tampa taught by LaRose, Anthony P. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Tampa.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Friday, September 16, 2016 Week 3 Notes CRM 102 - Crime Patterns • Ecological Patterns - rural and suburban areas have lower crime rates - crime rates are higher in the summer - the West and South have significantly higher crime rates • Gender Patterns - Males account for • ~80% of arrests for serious violent crimes • 60% of all arrests for serious property damage • Racial Patterns - minority groups are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity • there is a 4:1 chance of being arrested if you're black as compared to if you're white - institutional racism • racial profiling • socioeconomic status (people of color are more likely to be in poverty) • inequality in general • Social Class Patterns - limited opportunities produce stress and strain strain: you have an end result in mind, but don’t see the means to achieve it • - social disorganization and “broken windows” • when the neighborhood has unprepared windows, it tells criminals that it is an operable place to do crime 1 Friday, September 16, 2016 - relative deprivation: if you're poor but everyone else is poor, you’re all in the same boat and you feel okay. Strain results when you’re poor and you see that you’re the only one - law enforcement focuses on poorer neighborhoods, which can lead to the disproportionate number of arrests for people of color • Age Patterns - young people are arrested at a higher rate • this is not always for serious crimes The Chronic Offender • - begins at an early age, maintains a high rate of criminal violations through their lifetime, and is immune to the punitive nature of the justice system - 6% of criminals are chronic offenders 85% of crimes committed by chronic offenders are violent crimes, while 66% • are property crimes - Causes of Crime and Victimization • rational choice theory: we have free will and evaluate risks and rewards (actions and consequences) • biosocial theory - biochemical: the biochemical makeup of a person is altered significantly (twinkie defense) - neurological: damage to the prefrontal cortex, which controls impulses - genetic: there’s a parent in prison or the offender is a member of a criminal family • psychological theory - psychodynamic: Freud; how was your childhood? - behavioral/social learning: are criminal behaviors learned? example: Bandura’s bobo doll - cognitive: how one processes information - personality: states that some people are “anti-authority” 2 Friday, September 16, 2016 • social structure theory and the culture of poverty - Merton’s strain theory: you have an end result in mind, but don’t see the means to achieve it - cultural deviance theory: one grows up in a subculture where crime is “acceptable” • social process theory - social learning theory: you do a behavior because you learned it - social control theory (social bond): what keeps you from committing a crime - social reaction (labeling) theory: self-fulfilling prophecy • one is more likely to become their label. Ex: someone called a cheater will eventually cheat • social conflict theory: people are apt to commit crime because of the conflict that exists within society • developmental theory: as children, people begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their entire life’s course - disruptions in major transitions can promote criminality - as people mature, the factors influencing their behavior change - Criminal Law • the law effects almost every aspect of our lives, and each type of law overlaps - substantive criminal law: what constitutes a certain crime? - procedural law: were the correct steps followed in the correct order? - civil law (torts) - public and administrative law: examples include the IRS, EPA, child services • Historical stuff about criminal law - the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (not Harambe, sorry): the earliest form of written law - the Mosaic Code of the Israelites: incorporated religion into the law - Wergild (monetary compensation) 3 Friday, September 16, 2016 • compurgation: “I didn’t do it” and find other people to validate your claims • trial by ordeal: settling by combat, ie. sword fight, duel - Common Law • stare decisis (to stand by for decided cases): the legal principle that requires judges to base decisions on previously made judicial rulings (precedent) • Common Law was adopted from Britain and developed by judges who traveled around, asking people from other cultures what they thought was right and how they handled things. They took this information and wrote it down and codified it • Sources of Criminal Law - felonies: most serious cases, punishable by more than one year in prison, and even death - misdemeanor: less serious crimes, punishable by less than one year in prison - infractions: violations of local ordinances • The Legal Definition of a Crime - mens rea (guilty mind) and actus reus (guilty act) must be present and connected - the offender’s conduct must be the proximate cause of the criminal act - criminal harm: the actor’s willingness to cause harm - strict liability: mens rea is not required (the act in itself is a crime) 4


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