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HIST 1312-003, Week 3

by: Miranda Notetaker

HIST 1312-003, Week 3 HIST 1312-003

Miranda Notetaker
GPA 3.308

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from class this week on September 12, 14, and 16.
U.S. History from 1865
Bradley Folsom
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312-003 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Bradley Folsom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see U.S. History from 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Highlighted in Blue: important concepts In red: guaranteed to be on the exam (know the year) The Gilded Age, 1874-1882  The Politics of the Gilded Age o Politicians start to enter into office to better themselves, not the people o Corruption of the Gilded Age  Spoils System: politicians handing out jobs to people who aren’t qualified just to better themselves  Chester Arthur: NY politician, Republican  Uses Spoils System to elevate himself o Rutherford B. Hayes: Republican, wants to cut down on corruption in the Republican party  Sends federal investigators to look at Chester Arthur and fires him (for corruption) o Presidents in the Gilded Age  James Garfield: member of the House of Representatives  Doesn’t want to be President, but they nominate him with Chester Arthur as his VP  The Assassination of James Garfield  Charles Guiteau: assassinator of James Garfield o Crazy, kicked out of a cult o Gives a speech about Garfield and when Garfield wins the election, Charles thinks he is why o Expects Garfield to give him a job, but when he doesn’t, Charles begins to think that Garfield is the devil o Shoots Garfield in a train station  Pendleton Civil Service Act: have to take a test before getting a job in a federal position (fixing the Spoils System)  Joseph Lister: British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgical equipment and cleaning wounds  Grover Cleveland: Democratic candidate for President  Not corrupt  Had a child out of wedlock, but was honest about it  Elected in 1804  Gov’t hands-of  Industry in the Gilded Age o The Robber Barons: take over power in the US economy  Monopolies: owning businesses, destroying competition, charge whatever you want for your product  John D. Rockefeller: oil refinery business  Sells oil for less than everyone else  Everyone buys from him, other businesses destroyed  Prices spike  “Trusts”: business owners band together to keep other businesses out of the market  Interstate Commerce Act: federal law intended to regulate monopolistic practices in the railroad industry  Sherman Anti-Trust Act: prohibits business owners from own a majority of the stocks in multiple states at the same time o Industrial Workers  Workers can’t say “I’m going to work for so-and-so if you don’t give better wages, better working conditions, etc.”  BECAUSE – monopolies are taking over businesses, leaving no “so-and-so” for the workers to run of to  Increased work hours: 50-60 hours per week  Working conditions worse than before the Civil War, no workers compensation  Increase in child labor  Avondale Mine Disaster (example of bad working conditions, no safety precautions, and no concern for their workers)  Mine in Pennsylvania  Coal Breaker lights on fire, smoke goes down shaft  Coal miners stuck in shaft, sufocate, and die  MANY workers died during the Gilded Age without any compensation for the families o Unions  Strikes – all members of the Union would walk out, prevent factory from reopening  Trade Unions: group of people who strike and shut down their parts of the job, local level  Knights of Labor: national union  If you are a worker, you can join  Skilled workers make a demand for higher wages than unskilled workers  The American Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1886  Only open to skilled workers  Samuel Gompers: founds the AFL  Strike-breaking: working even though there is a strike because of a bribe or a promise of a raise  Pinkertons: group of people you can hire (originally a detective agency) to break up strikes  Homestead Strike  Homestead Factory  Strikers blocking entrance  Establish a beachhead (with the Pinkertons)  Strikers fire guns at the Pinkertons, they fire back  Throw dynamite at the Pinkertons  Pinkertons surrender  Militia comes in and destroys the strike (Gov’t interference!) o Get Rid of the Capitalist System! (Propositions)  Socialist Party  Karl Marx  Believes in an equal society without classes  Eugene Debs  Reads Karl Marx’s book  Begins to believe in Socialism  Anarchism-Communism  Believe there should be no gov’t  Gilded Age Technology o Thomas Edison: works at a telegraph line office (in free time, he would work on his own projects)  Battery acid (from one of his projects) melted through his desk, and Edison is fired  Invents the phonograph (people begin paying Edison to use the phonograph patent)  Edison uses the money to create Menlo Park (group of smart guys invent things for people and businesses)  Finds a way to create a lightbulb that doesn’t burn out quickly (a more efficient lightbulb) – filament bulb  Sells the lightbulbs with electricity o Nikola Tesla: has AC electricity technology (Edison has DC electricity technology)  Works for Edison in Menlo Park, doesn’t like the way Edison puts his name on things that someone else makes  Quits, makes his own lab, and promotes his AC electricity technology (more efficient, cheaper)  Edison claims that Tesla’s electricity will kill you (demonstrates by killing farm animals) o George Westinghouse uses Tesla’s technology in his creations  Conclusion o Telephone comes out during the Gilded Age Read: Chapters 17 & 18 Old West & New South: 1865-1890  Farming in America o Subsistence Farming to Tenant Farming  Subsistence farming: only farming enough for their family  Farmers go in debt (drafted to go of to war, not as many workers in farm)  Farmers lose their land and have to resort to tenant farming  Tenant farming: someone who has no land of their own works (and lives on) a part of someone else’s land (the owner gets part of the money/crops)  Tenant farmers go into more debt (because of the cut that the land owner’s take from their crops)  Living conditions decrease o Farmers become more dependent on railroads  Railroad cost increases, farmers reliant on railroads, pay more $  Open the West! o 1862 – Homestead Act: if you go to a federal official and ask for land, you can have it and farm on it (as long as when the official comes back in 5 years they must have improved part of the land)  Not very popular yet BECAUSE –  It’s unknown, scary land  Cannot aford start-up costs  Transportation  Family & Friends  No jobs  Slowly, people begin to move out west


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