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Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 2 - Chemistry

by: Lexie Kostreva

Foundations of Biology 1 - Chapter 2 - Chemistry Biology 221

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire > Biology > Biology 221 > Foundations of Biology 1 Chapter 2 Chemistry
Lexie Kostreva
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About this Document

These notes cover the material from the first week of class dealing with how chemistry is involved with how we learn about biology.
Foundations of Biology 1
Daniel P. Herman
Class Notes
Chemistry, Biology, atoms, periodic table, bonds, Molecules, Solutions, acids, bases




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Kostreva on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 221 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Daniel P. Herman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Foundations in Biology 1 Chapter 2 - Chemistry  The chemical basis of life o Definitions  Matter  Anything that has mass and occupies space  Atoms  The smallest functional unit of mass  Molecules  Two or more atoms bonded together  Atoms o Composed of sub atomic particles o Protons  Positive o Neutrons  Neutral o Electrons  Negative  Electrons found in orbitals around the nucleus  An electron shell = 1 or more orbitals  The inner shell has one orbital that can hold 2 electrons  The second shell has four orbitals  Each orbital can hold 2 electrons  Electrons in the outer orbital are valence electrons  Valence electrons participate in bond formation  Periodic Table o Atomic number o Atomic mass o Rows (Periods)  Number of electron shells o Columns (Groups)  Number of valence electrons o Isotopes  Elements that have a different number of neutrons; 12C and 14C o Radioisotopes  Unstable isotopes that emit subatomic particles and/or radiation  Numerically Speaking o Atomic/molecular masses are measured in daltons (Da) or kilodaltons (kDa)  1 Da = the mass of a hydrogen atom (or 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom) o Mole  The number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon  A mole of any substance contains 6.022 * 10^23 atoms/molecules o Avagadro’s number23  6.022 * 10 o What elements are most abundant in living organisms?  Oxygen  Carbon  Hydrogen  Nitrogen o Molecules and compounds  Molecule  Two or more atoms bonded together  Compound  Molecule composed of two or more different elements  Molecular formula  C 6 12 6  The physical properties of a compound are different from the physical properties of the separate elements  Sodium (Na) o Soft, silvery metal that ignites in water  Chlorine (Cl) o Yellow-green gas  Sodium chloride (NaCl) o Salt  Covalent bonds  Formed when atoms share valence electrons o Single bond  One pair of electrons shared between atoms o Double bond  Two pairs of electrons shared between atoms o Octet rule  Many atoms found in living organisms can have up to eight electrons in their outermost shell  Atoms are most stable when that shell is filled o The electronegativity of the atoms determines how the electrons are shared in covalent bonds  Nonpolar covalent bond  The electrons are shared equally between both atoms orbits  Polar covalent bonds  One atom has the electron in its orbit for longer than the other atom does  Partial positive and partial negative charges  Polar molecules and hydrogen bonds  Hydrogen bond o Weak attraction between a hydrogen atom from a polar molecule and an electronegative atom o Can occur between molecules or within a single molecule o A few hydrogen bonds can allow molecules to interact and then separate  The interaction between enzymes and their substrates o Many hydrogen bonds result in a strong force  Can contribute to maintaining the 3D structure of a molecule  Van der waals forces  Weak attractive force between nonpolar molecules that are within 5 nm o Even weaker than a hydrogen bond o Cumulative effect can be strong  Nanometer -9 o 1*10  Fluctuating dipole o Can change between nonpolar and polar depending on where the electrons are  Ionic bonds  Ion o An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons  Cation o Atom with positive charge o Lost one or more electrons  Anion o Atom with negative charge o Gained one or more electrons  Ionic bond o A bond formed between a cation (+) and an anion (-) o Weaker than covalent bonds, but stronger than hydrogen bonds  Molecular Shapes  Chemical reactions  Occurs when one or more substances are changed into other substances through the formation or breaking of chemical bonds  Characteristics of chemical reactions  Require energy (heat) for molecules to move and encounter each other  Many reactions require catalysts o Most biological reactions require catalysts  Usually proceed in one direction until equilibrium is reached o Biological reactions don’t usually reach equilibrium o The product of one reaction is the starting point for the next reaction  Usually occur in aqueous environments o Water is the solvent of life  Properties of water  Living organisms composed of up to 95% water  60-70% of human body weight is due to water o Brain – 70% o Blood – 80% o Lungs – 90% o Bone – 20%  Many organisms live in aqueous environments  Cell/tissues surrounded by aqueous environments  Biologically important chemical reactions happen in aqueous environments o Cytoplasm  Aqueous solution containing dissolved molecules that can undergo chemical reactions  Solutions  Solvent o Liquid  Solute o Substance dissolved in the solute  Aqueous solutions o Solutions where the solvent is water  Like dissolves like o Water is a polar molecule = molecules with ionic or polar covalent bonds dissolve in water = hydrophilic o Molecules with nonpolar covalent bonds don’t dissolve in water = hydrophobic  Amphipathic molecules  Both polar and nonpolar regions  Bilayer o Polar heads to the outside o Nonpolar tails to the inside  How do you talk about solutions?  Concentration o Amount of solute dissolved in a unit of volume of solution o Can be expresses in several ways  5 g/l, 5 mg/ml, etc.  Weight percent (g/100ml) o 20% glucose solution, etc.  Molarity o Number of moles dissolved in 1 liter of solution o Moles/volume (L) = molarity  Molecular mass o Grams/molar mass = moles o Na = 22.99 o Cl = 35.446  States of water (pure)  Solid o 0C, ice o Hydrogen bonds between water molecules form complexes  Liquid o 0C < water < 100C o Transient formation/breaking of hydrogen bonds between water molecules  Gas o 100C, water vapor o Heat energy breaks hydrogen bonds between water molecules and allows water molecules to escape  Properties of water  Heat of vaporization o Heat required to vaporize 1 M of substance at its boiling point  Heat fusion o Amount of heat energy that must be released to change from liquid to solid  Specific heat o Amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of substance 1C  Heat capacity o Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an entire object or substance  Colligative properties o Properties that depend only on the total number of dissolved solutes  If a solute is present, the freezing point will go down and the boiling point will go up  Biological functions of water  Solvent o Permits reactions between molecules that wouldn’t be possible in the non-dissolved state o Particles in dehydration and hydrolysis reactions  Cohesion o Attraction of water molecules to each other o Surface tension  Adhesion o Attraction of water molecules to non-neutral surfaces  pH  Water can ionize at low levels  The concentration of both H and OH is 10 in pure water  Acids o Substances that release hydrogen ions o Strong acids almost completely dissociate in water; weak acids do not  Bases o Substances that bind hydrogen ions  Maintaining pH is important  Hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions can bind to many kinds of ions and molecules, which can affect o Shapes and functions of molecules o Rates of chemical reactions o Ability of two molecules to bind and/or interact o Ability of ions/molecules to dissolve in water  Many biological processes function best within a narrow pH range  Buffer o Minimizes pH changes by absorbing or releasing hydrogen ions o Composed of weak acid and its related base  Bicarbonate buffering system  Functions in the kidneys of mammals to help maintain blood pH


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