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Introduction to Physical Geology lecture notes Friday the 9th week 2

by: Henderson Notetaker

Introduction to Physical Geology lecture notes Friday the 9th week 2 GEO 101N - 02

Marketplace > University of Montana > GEO 101N - 02 > Introduction to Physical Geology lecture notes Friday the 9th week 2
Henderson Notetaker
GPA 3.34

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These notes are for into to physical geology for Friday the 9th of September. they cover the start of chapter two, including notes from the slides, lecture, and the book. hope you find this helpful!
Intro to Physical Geology
James W. Sears (P)
Class Notes
Continental Drift, Geology, magnetic field
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Henderson Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101N - 02 at University of Montana taught by James W. Sears (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Introduction to Physical Geology (GEO 101N­02) Professor: Dr. Jim Sears Elite Notetaker: Cat Henderson Lecture Notes Friday 9/9 ***Disclaimer: the following content is derived from notes I have taken from the required text or from my understanding of the  in class lecture. The notes and/study guides provided are to the best of my ability correct however they are NOT supervised by  the professor nor can I guarantee the absence of all mistakes.  Please understand that the following is my own notes (not my  original findings) from that of the sited material. These notes comply with the University of Montana Academic Dishonesty codes and policies and will not provide answers or cheat sheets for assignments or exams. Thank you for reading and understanding  this. *** Alfred Wegner Reference: (ch2 slide 4, pg44 sec2.1 Ess. Of Geo)  German meteorologist and polar explorer.  o Geology as a hobby. o Spent time in Greenland studying glaciers  Hypothesized based on very little data but more on reasoning and logic o Observes that Africa and south America fit together like a jigsaw puzzle  Wrote “The Origins of the Continents and Oceans” in 1915 o He hypothesized a former supercontinent, Pangaea o He suggested that land masses slowly move (continental drift). o These were based on strong evidence  “fit” of the continents  Glacial deposits far from polar regions  Paleoclimatic belts  Distribution of fossils  Matching geologic units Plate Tectonics Reference: (ch2 slide 5­6, pg45 sec 2.2 Ess. Of Geo)  Wegener’s idea was the basis of a scientific revolution o Earth continually changes  Continents move, split apart, and recombine  Ocean basins open and close  Our modern maps match Wegner’s  His hypothesis was met with strong resistance: o “what force could possibly be great enough to move the immense mass of a  continent”  The scientific revolution began in 1960 o Harry Hess (Princeton) proposed sea­floor spreading  As continents drift apart, new ocean floor forms between  Continents converge when ocean floor sinks into the interior Plate Tectonics Cont.  By 1968, a complete model had been developed o Continental drift, sea floor spreading, and subduction o Earth’s lithosphere is broken into ~ 20 plates that interact  How it works: o it was the discovery of geo magnetic stripes off the coast of WA that led to  geological revolution o The pressure on the crust is lowered by cracks, molten lava then leaks out then  scabs over the fracture. This process repeats over and over pushing apart the  continents on either side of the fracture o Tested by taking sediment at the bottom of the sea thousands of feet down you  can see micro plants and matter that can determine the age of the material. This  shows that the sediment gets older the farther down you go. At the very bottom  the rock is 10 million years old. But as you get closer to the continent the rock  gets older proving that the rock is being pushed out. o By monitoring continent movement, we can see that continents move at roughly  3­4cm/year (same rate that your fingernails grow) o Sea floor spreading = continental drift o But earth is the same size, so…the other side must be changing too o This happens as the earth crusts go down into the mantle. This process is called  subduction. It produces volcanoes. o Glacial Evidence Reference: (ch2 slide 7, pg45 sec 2.2 Ess. Of Geo)  Evidence of late Paleozoic glaciers found on five continents o Deposits in south America and south Africa for example have similar deposits of  a glacier flowing from Antarctica   Some of this evidence is now far from the poles  These glaciers could not be explained unless the continents had moved Paleoclimatic Evidence Reference: (ch2 slide 8, pg45 sec 2.2 Ess. Of Geo)  Placing Pangaea over the late Paleozoic south pole:  Wegener predicted rocks defining Pangea climate belts o Topical coals o Tropical reefs o Subtropical deserts o Subtropical evaporates Fossil Evidence Reference: (ch2 slide 9­10, pg46 sec 2.2 Ess. Of Geo)  Identical fossils found on widely separated land masses o Mesosaurus – a freshwater reptile o Glossopteris – a subpolar plant with heavy seeds o Lystrosaurus – a nonswimming, land­dwelling reptile o Cynognathus – a nonswimming, land­dwelling mammal­like reptile   These organisms could not have crossed an ocean  Pangaea explains the distribution Matching Geologic Units Reference: (ch2 slide 11, pg47 sec 2.2 Ess. Of Geo)  Distinctive rock assemblages and mountain belts match across the Atlantic  Rock belts o The ages of the rocks match up across the world. There are rocks of a certain age  found in Africa that can be found in south America. These belts of rocks and  trends match up when you look at the continent of Pangaea o Similar belt trends span north America and the British Isles


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