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Children and Sport Week Three

by: Ivana Szwejkowski

Children and Sport Week Three EXNS 1119W

Ivana Szwejkowski
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover overuse injuries and prevention, Long Term Athletic Development Model, metabolic process, energy pathways, and VO2 Max.
Children and Sport
Bowes, C
Class Notes
exercise science, child psychology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivana Szwejkowski on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXNS 1119W at George Washington University taught by Bowes, C in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Children and Sport in Exercise and Nutrition Science at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Children and Sport week 3 Physiological responses of children to exercise Energy Pathways -ATP-PC system -Anaerobic lactic acid system -Aerobic system Quick Overview of the metabolic processes -ATP is the energy currency in the body -Creatine used to create quickly used energy within seconds -Resynthesis of ATP occurs via Glycolysis, The Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain (ETC) -Mitochondria creates the most ATP. -Glycolysis converts carbs to Pyruvate if limited oxygen available, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid -with oxygen readily available, pyruvate enters Krebs cycle and ATP this generates much more ATP but at a much slower rate -more mitochondria=more aerobic energy Do their bodies differ in physiological responses to exercise? Metabolic Responses in Children -the ability to derive energy from the anaerobic lactate pathway is not as well developed -children’s energy metabolism appears to be more directed to the provision of energy -a wide range of variation in the development of this pathway -children are not scaled down adults, and are not mature working machines Maximal Oxygen Consumption- VO2max -oxygen versus work rate -Rowers and Cross-country skiers -VO2max represents the greatest intake of 02 that can be utilized per unit of time under maximal effort -Technique not developed Cardiovascular & Ventilation responses to exercise Perception of Effort - Children grade physical effort lower than adolescents & adolescents perceive the same effort as less strenuous than adults - Younger the individual the lower the subjective perceived effort; although the intensity of effort was equally great - A given physiological strain is perceived to be less by children than older individuals Nervous System - Plasticity is high in children Muscular System - Muscular system become stronger with relevant/appropriate training in children & adolescents - Significant gains in strength are made in the absence of hypertrophy - Strength development limited to neural recruitment activities & body mechanics prior to puberty - Hypertrophy observed in adolescents (timing in relation to peak velocity & gender differences) - Consideration of muscul0-skeletal maturation is critical Consider the impact of maturation (e.g. early maturers vs. late maturers) on selected for advanced training. - Especially for boys, the big strong kids, get picked for A teams, and smaller boys for B teams, limiting their ability to develop skill set. Smaller athletes actually have a longer period to develop their technique, but they are dropped because they are physically underdeveloped. LTAP-Long Term Athlete Development model - Model that guides that the right training is completed at the right time in children and adolescents - Informed by children’s maturation - Main stages; Active Start FUNdamentals Learning to Train Training to Train Training to Compete Training to Win Active Life 9/15 Overuse Injuries Injuries due to repeated use, overtraining, or exceeding a physical limit -Signs are weakness and loss of technique Example Injuries Tennis Elbow Runners Knee Shin Splints Stress Fractures Swimmers Shoulder Achilles tendinitis Predisposing Factors; -Intrinsic Factors: anatomic malalignment, Prior Injury, poor conditioning, growth, Menstrual dysfunction -Extrinsic Factors: Improper training methods, poor technique, improper surface for training, excessive pressure, Inappropriate equipment (particularly footwear) Prevention: ACSM has suggested that about 50 percent of overuse injuries can be prevented - Recovery - Warm up - Organization of practice - Gradual progression - Changing surfaces - Periodized training - Rest days - Multi-lateral development


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