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Psychology week 3 lecture 9/13-9/15

by: Farreh Sears

Psychology week 3 lecture 9/13-9/15 PSY 1010

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 1010 > Psychology week 3 lecture 9 13 9 15
Farreh Sears

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About this Document

Basically what we've gone over plus information out of the book.
Intro Psychology
Andrew Tenbrink
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Farreh Sears on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Andrew Tenbrink in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Wayne State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Psychology Lecture notes 9/13-9/15  Reliability and Validity o When evaluating your data as a scientist reliability and validity are very important. . o Reliability = to be consistent, obtaining the same results the same way every time.  Just because something is reliable doesn’t mean that it’ll do what you intend for it to. o Validity = measuring what you say your measuring.  Are you doing what you intend to do?  Internal vs. external validity  Internal = what you do within the experiment. o Is your experiment correct? Are you doing it the right way? o Manipulate ‘A’ Measure ‘B’ (simplest experiment) o Confounding variables = something that is not part of the experiment that influences the results.  External validity = the meaningfulness of the experiment. o Do your results matter in the real world?’ o Representative samples = what is it that your studying, who is it that your studying?  If your studying the general publics love of meat, you wouldn’t take your poll from a vegan organization.  Third variable problem= other variables that underlie both results.  Neurons= Are cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to preform information- processing tasks. Behavior essential o Facts:  Neurons, the processors of the brain. The brain is very much like a computer and the computer chip is the neuron.  80-100 billion neurons in the human brain, which is a lot when you think that there’s only around 8 billion people in the world. o Major types:  Sensory neurons = receive information form the outside world, conveying it through the spine to the brain.  Motor neurons = Carries signals from the spine to muscles.  Interneurons = Connects neurons to other neurons. 2  Neurons are electrical, and can be compared to batteries o They are composed of three basic parts  Cell body = the largest component of the neuron that directs the information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive.  Dendrites = Receive information from other neurons. In appearance wise dendrite look like tree branches.  Axon = A tube-like structure that carries information in the form of charges to other neurons, muscles, or glands.  They can be very long, going from your spine to the tips of your toes. o Synapse= the area between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another. (The point of communication)  The axon and dendrite don’t actually come into contact with one another. 3 o Myelin Sheath = Insulated layer of fatty material which is composed of glial cells.  Glial cells (glue)= support the cells in the nervous system.  Serve a variety of functions in your brain o Digesting dead neurons o Provide physical and nutritional support o Help axons carry information efficiently  Appear like sausage links, with break points called nodes of Ranvier.  Electrical impulses jump from node to node, speeding up the conduction of information.  Neurons processing creates small changes in voltage by generating a current. o If the sum of all voltage charges reaches a certain depolarized level, a nerve impulse is generated.  Both have polarity = a separation of charge (volts)  The resting potential is a fully-charged neuron o Current = a moving charge  Movement of ions (charge) 4  Channels = each ion has its own specific channel that can open or close. o Na can only go through a channel + made for Na  Sodium (Na channel) = When Na enters the cell, the cell itself becomes more positively charged (depolarized)  Ions = charged molecules  What motivates ions to move? o Electrical charge, opposites attract, likes repel o Chemical diffusion, ions move to achieve balance across a membrane o Electric signaling in neurons  At rest there is an imbalance in the ions that creates the need to move  Resting Action potential  Resting potential = The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron’s cell membrane.  Inside the neuron are negatively charged proteins, this draws in both Na and K . + o Na (sodium) can’t move into the neuron (the channels are closed).  K (potassium) is more concentrated inside the neuron than out because of the negative charge. It is also able to move freely in and out of the neuron. But it also wants to move outwards because there are very little K ions outside the neuron.  Action potential = An electric signal that’s conducted along the length of a neuron’s axon to a synapse, and results in communication between neurons. 5 o Specialized in long distance travel without decay. o Only occurs when the electric shock reaches a certain level. It is All-or- None.  Stays the same during the entire travel. o Excited = a cell begins an action potential. o When using energy, the current decreases the voltage.  When current flows the voltage changes.  Neurons communicate with each other in a chemical way o Terminal buttons = knob-like structure that branch from the axon. o Neurotransmitters = Chemicals that transfer information to receptors. o Receptors = Receivers of neurotransmitters  Work as a lock-&-Key system, one key to one lock   Action potential travels down the axon, then stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from vesicles. The neurotransmitters move into the synapse 6 where they bind with receptor sites initiating a new action potential. The neuron reuptakes the neurotransmitters, uses enzymes to break neurotransmitters down, or binds them to auto-receptors on the sending neuron.  Flow of information o DendritesCell bodyAxonTerminalDendrites  Dendrites = the site where a neuron receives information. (from neurotransmitters) The chemical information becomes electrical.  Cell body = the place where the information is processed. Uses math to come to a result, do I communicate or not?  Axon = A single structure that leaves the cell body and takes the information to the terminal.  Terminal = point of communication between one neuron to another  Types and functions (Neurotransmitters) o Acetylcholine- involved in voluntary motor control  Contributes to regulating learning, attention, dreaming, and sleeping  Its deterioration is associated with Alzheimer’s o Dopamine- Regulates pleasure, emotional arousal, motivation, and motor behavior.  High levels can result in schizophrenia  Low levels can result in Parkinson’s disease o Glutamate- Excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain which enhance the transmissions between neurons  GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.  Too little or too much of either can result in seizures o Norepinephrine- influence mood, and arousal. Involved in heightened awareness in dangerous situations and vigilance. 7 o Serotonin- influence mood, and arousal. Involved in the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, aggressive behavior, and eating. o Endorphins- pain reducers, and mood boosters. Athletes experience this when they push their bodies too far which usually result in a lot of body pain once the ‘high’ wears off.  The synapse= Point of communication between a terminal and a dendrite. o Action potential (Pre)  Chemical (Gap)  Depolarization (Post)  The nervous system (ORGANIZATION) = A network of neurons that interact with one another to convey electrical information. o Divisions in the nervous system  Central Nervous system (CNS)  spinal cord  brain  Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) a.k.a everything else 8 o Autonomic nervous system  Coordinates brain and body to optimize behavior  Sympathetic: expend energy  “flight or fight”  Your heart beats faster  Parasympathetic: conserve energy  “rest and relaxation”  Heart rate slows down  Basic structure of brain o General divisions: brainstem, forebrain  Brainstem: hindbrain, and midbrain  Forebrain: cortex, limbic structures o Medulla= Location of basic live support.  So long as it’s active your body can survive o Reticular formation= collection of many parts, it controls your brain arousal.  Without this your brain is not active (coma) o Cerebellum = motor coordination, or timing movement. 9  Has the most neurons than the rest of the brain.  Subcortical structures =lie beneath the cerebral cortex o Thalamus = the switchboard of the brain, controls how information flows through the brain. o Hypothalamus = controls motivational behaviors of things we need to do to survive. o Hippocampus = A key structure for learning  W/o it you can’t learn new things o Amygdala = typical role in fear.  Overview of chemical communication: o Storage o Release o Binding o Termination-reuptake OR Termination- enzyme deactivation  Neurotransmitters o There are many kinds, over 60+  Have different effects on postsynaptic cells.  Generally, they excite or inhibit  Receptors o Each neurotransmitter has its own specific receptors  Key  lock o Each receptor, when activated, can effect the behavior of the cell. (Inhibitory/excitatory)  Drugs o Because many neurotransmitters affect thoughts, feelings, and behavior in different ways it’s understandable that there has to be a delicate balance of each. Even a slight imbalance throws off a scale after all. Many drugs work by altering the process of synaptic communication. Whether the outcome is good or bad depends on the specifics.  Drugs can target to specific receptors to create certain behaviors 10 o Drugs can:  Mimic neurotransmitters and prevent neurotransmitters from working o Opposite sides of a see-saw  Agonist = increase or mimic the actions of neurotransmitters  The alternative ‘key’ activates the neurotransmitter by binding to the receptor.  Antagonists = inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters.  Like sticking clay into a lock, antagonists block the receptor sites.  11 o Re-uptake is one of the common ways communication is terminated  Re-uptake inhibitors are drugs that cause a neurotransmitter to stay in the gap longer  Examples: Zolaft, cocaine, Prozac 12


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