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Week 3: The Science of Human Nutrition Notes

by: drswanson7

Week 3: The Science of Human Nutrition Notes NUTR 23511-009

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These notes cover materials went over in week 3 of class.
Science of Human Nutrition
Tanya R. Falcone (P)
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by drswanson7 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 3 Science of Nutrition Notes Toxicities and Deficiencies  High levels upset the normal functioning  Iron (constipation side effect)  Calcium (women are more deficient)  Ripple Effect o Excess fatigue and weakness can be caused by:  Iron deficiencies in addition to  Low levels of vitamin A and zinc  Carbs and Vitamins  You need vitamins and minerals + carbs to get energy.  Iron and Calcium effect each other. They go from your gut to your bloodstream. If you are deficient in either one, your body is going to demand the other and close the channel. Nutrition Concept #5  Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in nutrient intake. Introduction  Some nutrients are stored for later use: o Glucose: carbs, keeps everything functioning o Fats o Iron o Calcium o Vitamin A o B12: only stored for a short period of time  The body has a low storage capacity for some nutrients (what you do not need you’ll just pee out.) o Vitamin C o Water Example #1  When caloric intake is reduced: o Body lowers energy expenditure  Fatigue and weakness o Declines in body temperature and the capacity to do physical work in order to adapt to the body’s need for calories  When caloric intake is exceeding the body’s need: o Nutrients are stored as fat for later use  Proteins, carbohydrates and fats  GI tract can increase or decrease absorption based on need o Iron and Calcium  We do not get rid of proteins, carbs and fats, they retain energy Adaptation  Feast of Famine Cycle o An adaptive mechanism that we have retained since the time of hunting and gathering to prevent deficiencies during famine cycles/months o Stores excess energy to prevent any time where food and availability was much less o Ex: during holidays we eat more (Mid- October to Mid- February) o Ex: Spring for beach bodies, winter you gain it all back/ eat more 2 Nutrition Concept #8  Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or a combination of these factors. Malnutrition  Lack or Excess of nutrients and calories o Examples:  Vitamin A toxicity  Obesity  Vitamin C; too much vit. C cause diarrhea  Underweight: Crones Disease  Diseases that interfere with the body’s ability to use the nutrients consumed o Diarrhea: nothing is passing by the GI tract o Alcoholism: more than two or three drinks stop digestion o Cancer: cell that can become anything, create their own arteries that feed off your arteries which feed the tumors o Bleeding ulcers o HIV/AIDS: metabolism is super high, you are feeding the disease when you increase your intakes  Genetic traits= 50% of the population has the genetic material that makes them susceptible to dietary cholesterol o Cholesterol levels 3 o Chronic disease (diabetes, heart disease, etc. -> combination) Nutrition Concept #7  Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Groups at Risk  Women who are pregnant  Women who are breastfeeding  Infants  Growing children  Frail elderly (intake less calories but more vitamins and minerals as cells age)  The ill  People recovering from illness  Food shortages, natural disasters, war  Poverty Nutrition Concept #8  Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases Poor Nutrition  Toxicities  Deficiencies  Faulty Diets 4 o Heart disease  High saturated fats – animal fat, high trans fat o Hypertension: high blood pressure  High consumption of salty foods (ex: sodium) cause constriction of blood vessels, pressure increases. High and Low blood pressure are both dangerous o Cancer  Low consumption of fruits and vegetables increasing antioxidants to help reduce oxidation (oxidation can cause damaged tissues because of the free radicals). o Osteoporosis  Low calcium Nutrition Concept #9  Adequacy, variety and balance are key characteristics of a healthful diet Introduction  Many different foods that together provide calories and nutrients in amounts that provide optimal functioning of the body  No one food contains all the nutrients we need o Except breast milk for infants Types of Foods  Milk, broccoli, chicken and apples 5  Nutrient dense foods – foods that contain relatively high amounts of nutrients compared to their calorie value o Ex: avocados, salmon, fruits, and vegetables  Energy dense foods – a lot of calories packed in a very small amount of food o Ex: donuts, avocados, salmon  Empty calorie foods – foods that provide an excess of calories in relation to nutrients o Ex: donuts Nutrition Concept #10  There are no good or bad foods Introduction  No such thing as “good” or “bad” foods  Healthful vs. unhealthful foods  Foods to choose more often vs. foods to choose less often  3 words to live by: o Quality: of food. What kind of food are you eating? Overly processed or clean? o Quantity: how much of this food are you eating? o Frequency: how often are you eating these foods? Unit 2 Introduction  Health and longevity Is affected by: 6 o Diet o Lifestyle behaviors o Genetic traits o Environment o Access to health care Rickets vs. Pellagra  How can oral effect children? 1. Deficiencies in children will always have more impact than adults because they are growing and developing. They need more nutrition than adults. Moderate and severe deficiencies in children are NOT reversible. 2. Adults: mild reversible, moderate depends on the type. Severe: NOT reversible Rickets  Vitamin D deficiency in children.  Sign/Symptom: bowed legs  Bones are not formed properly  NOT reversible Pellagra  Niacin deficiency. (type of B vitamin) st  Sign/Symptom: dermatitis (ring around neck) 1 sign  See it in socioeconomic communities, non stable homes, and children that need formula or breastfed  4 D’s of symptoms: o Dermatitis 7 o Diarrhea o Dementia o Death Chronic Diarrhea  Can lead to: o Severe dehydration o Poor nutrient absorption o Malnutrition o Death  Most cases of chronic diarrhea are caused by: o Lack of immunizations (main cause) o No access to fluids/ I.V.’s  If you have a non-functional GI tract, it can cause diarrhea because nutrients are not absorbed Nutritional State of the Nation  In the past: o Hospital beds were filled with children and adults with deficiencies  Currently: o Hospital beds are being filled with children and adults with dietary excess because of toxicities o We over consume supplements  Leading cause of death o Heart disease  Diet is also related to other leading causes of death o Diabetes 8  Excess body fat o Stroke  Alcohol o Cirrhosis of the liver  Alcohol o Accidents  Alcohol Definitions  Diabetes o A disease characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose  Stroke o The even that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain suddenly ruptures or becomes blocked, cutting off blood supply to a portion of the brain. Associated with hardening of the arteries in the brain (cerebral vascular accident).  Cirrhosis of the liver o Degeneration of the liver, usually caused by excessive alcohol intake over a number of years.  Osteoporosis o Condition in which bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture d/t a loss of calcium and other minerals.  Chronic inflammation 9 o Inflammation that lasts weeks, months, yrs. o It is the first response of the body’s immune system to infection of irritation. Inflammation triggers the release of biologically active substances that promote oxidation and other potentially harmful reactions in the body. Chronic Diseases Obesity  ***Most common nutritional disorder in the US***  2 in 3 adults or children are overweight or obese  2 in 5 children are considered obese  increases the risk of o heart disease o diabetes o certain cancers o hypertension Hypertension  “Silent Killer”: no signs and symptoms  one of the most common disorders in the US and is related to heart diseases Iron Deficiency  ***Most common in women and children***  For women o Reproductive system o Iron is the core of the red blood cell. Lack of iron= lack of red blood cells= no transporting 10  For children o When kids are growing they need more cells to make more tissues so iron is good for growth and development Osteoporosis  Low intakes of calcium and vitamin D  Teens and young adults  50% of women do not get enough calcium and vitamin D in their diet, ingest less dairy product  To reduce risk of osteoporosis o Calcium o Vitamin D o Exercise Chronic Inflammation and Antioxidants  Chronic inflammation is related o Diabetes o Heart disease o Arthritis o Etc  Oxidative stress  Free radicals: lone molecules that don’t like to be paired o Caused by oxidation, stress, pollution, exercise, lack of exercise Nutrient-Gene Interaction Cancer Related Genes 11  Sulforaphane o Inactivates a gene that produces a substance that encourages cancer development  Example: o Oxidative stress, free radicals Cholesterol Related Gene  50% of the population is genetically susceptible to dietary cholesterol  As dietary cholesterol increases blood cholesterol increases  Cholesterol non- responders o Individuals who lack the trait o Blood cholesterol does not increase dietary cholesterol increases The Importance of Food Choices Diet and Disease of Western Civilization  High in animal fat  High in salt  High in sugar  Low in fiber  Low in fruits and vegetables  SUPPOSED TO DO THE COMPLETE OPPOSITE Adaptation  Our bodies are not the same as 40,000 years ago BUT the basics are the same 12 o Ex: still need water to survive, feast and famine cycle Past: Hunting and Gathering  First 200 centuries o Wild game, fruits and vegetables  Had to be consumed in a short time o Feasting followed by famine  Lasted until the following successful hunt/gathering  Our bodies adapted to live off “hunting and gathering” o Wild game o Fish o Fruits o Vegetables  **To survive famines and physically demanding lifestyle** Current  We are exposed to a different set of circumstances o Highly processed foods o High sugar intake o Food additives o Alcohol o Low fiber intake o No famines 13 o No physical demand to acquire food  Other mechanisms that used to be beneficial that are no longer assets o Stimulate hunger in the presence of excess body fat stores o Conserve the body’s supply of sodium o Confer an innate preference for sweet-tasting foods: our bodies love sweets because we need the glucose to get the carbs o Digestive system that functions on a high-fiber diet helps to slow down absorption and clean gut out  Increased prevalence of: o Heart disease o Cancer o Diabetes o hypertension Our Bodies Function Best On  Low in sugar and sodium  Lean source of protein  High fiber: fruits and vegetables  High complex carbs: potatoes, grains at basic level  High fruits and vegetable intake The Power of Prevention  What can we do to prevent chronic diseases? o Fruits and vegetables o Vitamins and minerals (not too much) 14 o Exercise o Variety of diet, quality, quantity, portion size o 80% healthy habits, 20% non-healthy o 30 mins. exercise daily o reduce negative lifestyle behaviors 15


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