General Chemistry I: Atomic structure
General Chemistry I: Atomic structure 1341
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaida Gomez on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1341 at Texas State University taught by Mamiya in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 1 Significant Figures Only apply when they’re measurements Exact numbers such as 1ft=12in are not measurements, therefore, does not apply 12.43g for example is a measurement, so Significant Figures do apply RULES 1. All nonzero digits ARE significant 2. Zeros between nonzero digits ARE significant 3. Zeros to the left of the first nonzero (leading zeros) ARE NOT significant 4. Zeros to the right of the first nonzero digit ARE significant 5. Number ending with zero may or may not be significant (DECIMAL needs to be present to be significant) Adding and Subtracting Measurements 1. Do the math 2. Determine the measurement with the most uncertainty 3. Round the answer to the same decimal point as the measurement with the most uncertainty Multiplying and Dividing Measurements 1. Do the math 2. Determine which number has the least amount of significant figures 3. Round to that number of significant figures Precision- how close are individual measurements to agreeing with one another Accuracy- how close the individual measurements agree with the true measurement Chapter 2 Modern Atomic Structure Subatomic Particle- Proton Location- Nucleus Charge- +1 Size- 1.0073amu (very large) Subatomic Particle- Neutron Location-Nucleus Charge- -1 Size- 1.0087amu (very large) Subatomic Particle- Electron Location- outside nucleus Charge- -1 Size- 5.4x10^-4amu (VERY small) Atomic Notation Capitol then lower case (Examples: Cl, Sy) (Sourced from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/nucnot.html) Atomic number is the whole # sequence on periodic table Mass #- protons + neutrons Isotope is the Mass number (X-13 is the form, ex. Na-23) Ions Ion- a charged atom or molecule Cation- positive ion, more protons than electrons Anion- negative ion, more electrons than protons Neutral Atom- protons=electrons Protons are positive and Electrons are negative Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic- many ions Ammonium ion is the only cation Most contain oxygen
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