Week 4-6 Notes
Popular in Western Civilization
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney James on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of South Alabama taught by Leanne good in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at University of South Alabama.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Western Civilization Notes Part 2 Early Greek civilization Writing: Linear A - Used by Minoan palace scribes - Still not deciphered to this day Economy Minoan trade documents found in ports along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Exported luxury goods Stratified society-peasants pay tax in produce Redistributive economy - taking in all the goods and redistributive - polyculture as well=combination of crops Natural disasters or an invasion? (possibly destroyed by Santorini/Thera volcano) - 1450-Cretan cities destroyed except Knossos - Knossos follows in 1375 and 1200 BCE - Warrior graves appear on Crete Mycenae Greece (1600-1100 BCE) The Peloponnese By 1400 a uniform Mycenaean Greece 1800-1000 BCE Mycenaean civilization Palaces at Mycenae, Athens, War Thebes 2 wheeled chariots No longer constructed religions Trojan War? (Did it really occur) Mycenae - Troy 6-1700 BCE - warrior civilization - Monumental - graves contain bronze swords, fortifications daggers Troy 7-1190 BCE - skeletons of the rulers were over - destroyed 6 ft. tall Palaces become redistributive places - Economy centered - Centers of food collection and distribution - Settlements near the coast control seaborne trade Bureaucrats that lived in the palaces were the ones the ones to keep records - Transformation from Linear A script of Crete to Linear B - Linear A=unable to read - Linear B=able to read Diplomatic relations with Mesopotamia and Egypt End of the International Bronze Age 1200-1000 BCE - Disintegration of Hittite and Egyptian states - Canaan and Syria are left undefended- “Sea People” invade - 1000-500 Difficult period of change across the Mediterranean Dark Age in Greece (1200-800 BCE) Decline of agriculture Loss of trade - Fewer luxury goods in Canaanites=Phoenicians graves - Migration Canaanites-Semitic people living - *Loss of literacy* on coast of Eastern Mediterranean *Phoenicians-Greek term to refer Reemergence of Near East Empires to the major Canaanite port towers - (1000-500 BCE) - City-states - Maritime trading culture - *establishes Carthage- 800 BCE in North Africa - Spread the alphabet Hebrews/Israelites Living as herdsmen in Mesopotamia Semitic tribes - Semi-nomadic shepherds, traders - Share Mesopotamian culture, but no urban culture - Shares story of Abraham around 1900 BCE *History from the Tanakh Tanakh: The Hebrew bible (known by Christian as the Old Testament) - Earliest parts composed ca. 950 BCE Torah: The first five books of the Hebrew Bible. - Also known as the “Pentateuch”. Contains early Jewish laws Abraham>Isath>Jacob>Joseph moves family to Egypt - 13 century BCE - Slavery in Egypt Moses>Sinai Desert Henotheism Sinai god Yahweh + Canaanite God El Covenant-a contractual agreement Israelites in Canaan Loose confederation of tribes Judges-temporary military leaders No temple 1050 BCE-Philistines defeat (Ark of the Covenant)-chest which Israelites and capture the Ark contained the law of Moses “A King Like All the Nations” (Book of Samuel 1:8) Saul David (ca. 1000-962 BCE) - Defeated Philistines - Dominated all of Canaan - Established Jerusalem as political/religious capital Solomon (ca.961-922 BCE) - Peak of power - Built a temple for the Ark - Restricted from a tribal society - Raised taxes, increased military service o Division after Solomon’s Death - North-Israel - South-Judah Mesopotamia after the Hittites - Hittites fall ca.1000 BCE - *Neo-Assyrians (900-600 BCE) o First to unite civilization of Mesopotamia and Egypt - *Neo-Babylonian Empire (600-539 BCE) - Persian Expansion (begins 557 BCE) Assyria in 9 century - Shalamaneser 111 receives tribute from King of Israel th Assyria Expansion in 8 century *Tiglath-Pileser III - Takes Babylon Sargon II - Takes Israel Sennacherib - Takes Urartu (Armenia) Tiglath-Pilesser III (746-727 BCE) Army-professional soldier, first to use iron weapons Military religious ideology - Warfare is a mission and duty for all Taxes - Maintain huge armies - Built roads to improve communication Creates new administrative systems - Increased number of administrative districts Terror and brutality Larger scale population relocations Sargon II and Prince Sennacherib Assyrians destroy Israel, deport population (722 BCE) Judah becomes a client state th Assyria in 7 Century (700-600 BCE) Conquest of Egypt Great Library of Ashurbanipal Neo-Babylonian Empire (Chaldeans) Nabopolassar, r. 625-605 BCE *Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 BCE) - Rebuilt city of Babylon - Astronomy (observation between 747 BCE and 61 CE) Judeans in Babylonian Captivity Nebuchadnezzar-586 BCE Judah and Temple of Solomon are destroyed; Judeans deported No temple Replaced with study of the law (Torah) Built synagogues, house of study Persian conquer Babylon in 539 BCE King Cyprus II (Ca. 585-529) Different attitude to rule - Light taxes - Satraps (regional governors) ruled with little interference from the King - Protected local customs and religions - Allowed deported people to return to their homelands Persian religion: Zoroastrianism Zoroaster (ca.630-550 BCE)/Zarathustra Ahura Mazda (good) vs. Angra Mainyu (evil) - Moral dualism-world is an ongoing battle between the forces of good and evil Individual responsibility to choose God Heaven or Hell Scripture: The Avesta Medean priests-the Magi>” magic” Second Temple Judaism Persian allow people of Judah to return to Jerusalem New understanding of their faith>Judaism - emphasize the Torah - monotheistic - new system of separatism-keep Judaism uncontaminated by other religious/cultural influences Darius I (r.522-486 BCE) Extended Persian empire Network of roads and royal postal systems Summary: first 3000 years of civilization (3500-500 BCE) - Built first cities, city-states, regional states, multinational empires - Resolves uneven distribution of natural resources of irrigation, trade, communication - Religious traditions substrate for later Western religious traditions - Writing and written law codes - Astronomy, Math, Engineering Dark Age Greece (1200-800 BCE) Decline of agriculture Loss of literacy Hesiod (ca. 800 BCE) Collapse of long distance trade>can’t get tin and copper to make bronze - Learn to work hot iron to make steel Age of Iron Competition seen as a social value - Excellence [arête] earned through competition - Warriors and public speakers Homer (ca.750 BCE) Iliad and Odyssey About events in the Mycenaean age, but reflect Dark Age conditions Literary production signals change