ESS 306 Lecture1 Notes
ESS 306 Lecture1 Notes ESS 306
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Beyea on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ESS 306 at D'Youville College taught by Thomas McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in Exercise and Sports Studies at D'Youville College.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
ESS 306: Lecture 1, PPT 1, 8/25 What is Exercise Physiology? Physiology o The study of the function of tissues, organs, and systems Levels of organization Organism-> system-> organ-> tissue-> cell Exercise Physiology o Simple definition: The study of how exercise (or physical activity) affects the functions of the body o Detailed definition: The study of how acute (single bout) and/or chronic (repeated bout) exercise impacts the function of tissues, organs, and systems o Modern Exercise Physiology Overlapping areas of study Cellular function (Molecular biology) Proteins (Biochemistry) Genes (Genetics) Exercise vs. Physical Activity o Exercise A type of physical activity consisting of planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain or test one or more of the components of physical fitness (CDC def.) Has to be structured and planned physical activity, and can be tests 5 Components of Exercise: 1. A type of physical activity 2. Planned 3. Structured 4. Repetitive bodily movement 5. Performed with the intent of improving or maintaining one of the components of physical fitness (HRPF or SRPF) Requires Mechanical Work o Force = mass x acceleration = Newtons o Work = force x distance = Joules o Power = work/time = Watts To be work: there has to be a conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy Work requires Energy o Energy The capacity for doing work The ”currency” for performing work Comes from ATP The energy from ATP is stored in the 3 high energy phosphate bonds o When one is broken off, it releases energy Sugar, ribose, nucleobase o Phosphates make it a nucleotide o Physical Activity Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase over resting energy expenditure (CDC def.) Any type of activity that increases energy expenditure above resting Voluntary o How they differ: All exercise is physical activity, but not all physical activity is exercise Physical activity Does not stress the systems so no adaptations or benefits occur Exercise Done to improve, maintain, or test one or more of the components of physical fitness Physical Fitness o Two broad kinds of physical fitness Health-related physical fitness Specific components of physical fitness related to good health o 1. Cardio-respiratory fitness Takes oxygen from the environment into the body, circulates it around to the working muscles o 2. Body composition Lean mass and fat mass o 3. Muscular strength Amount of force a muscle can exert o 4. Muscular endurance Ability to exert force without fatigue Ability to continually generate force o 5. Flexibility ROM at a given joint Skill-related physical fitness Specific components of physical fitness related to performance of sport or skill o 1. Agility Ability to change direction with precision o 2. Balance Static Ability to maintain a position Dynamic Ability to maintain a position during movement o 3. Coordination o 4. Power Anaerobic Ability to perform work over time (less than 3 minutes) Aerobic VO max 2 Related to cardio-respiratory fitness Instantaneous Ability to exert force fast o 5. Speed Absolute or maximum velocity o 6. Reaction time Ability to react to a stimulus in a timely way o Agility is related to power o Coordination is related to balance Bioenergetics Food -> energy nutrients -> ATP -> work o The ability to take foodstuffs and extract energy, which produces ATP, and use ATP to do work o Energy providing Nutrients Carbs = 4 kcal/g Fats = 9 kcal/g Proteins = 4 kcal/g o Storage Fat Stored in adipocytes (fat cells) Stored as triglycerides (glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached) o Stores a ton of ATP-over 400 ATP Protein Stored in tissues Stored as proteins Carbs Stored as glucose in the blood Stored as glycogen in liver and sometimes in the muscle Process of storage: Constant cycle of anabolic and catabolic reactions Anabolic o Amino acids assembled into proteins to be stored o Fatty acids assembled into triglycerides to be stored o Glucose assembled into glycogen to be stored Catabolic o Proteins broken down into amino acids o Triglycerides broken down into fatty acids o Glycogen broken down into glucose
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