Gen Bio 115 Week 2
Gen Bio 115 Week 2 01:119:115
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:115 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Gregory Transue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12/2016 III. Themes of Biology A. Emergent properties: arrangement and interaction of parts w/in system Emergence: whole is more than sum of its parts Properties of life emerge at diff levels Range divided into levels of biological organization B. Unifying themes Evolution = core theme of bio unity AND diversity of organisms Living org are modified descendants of common ancestors 1.8 mil species named, up to 100 mil more Org of life patterns the cells Structure and function Heredity Interaction w/ environment C. Levels of Bio Organization hierarchy Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems The Biosphere D. All life is related – LUCA – unity and diversity Divided into three Domains 1) Bacterium 2) Archaea 3) Eukarya Lecture 2: The Scientific Process and Chemistry I. Methods of Investigating Bio “science” Latin “to know” Inquiry: search for natural causes to natural phenomena Hypothesis: testable explanation for observation based on available data Theory: Broad explanation w/ significant support Law: statement of what always occurs under certain circumstances A. The Scientific Process Observation Background Hypothesis + predictions Experiments + Observations Evaluation Incorrect predictions Revise hypothesis Repeat experiment Correct predictions Repeat and verify Ask a new question Endless Cycle! II. Basic Elements of Chemistry about 25/92 elements essential to life 4 make up 96% of living matter “CHON” Most of remaining 4%: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur The rest are trace elements A. Prop of Atoms depend on structure Each element consists of unique atoms Protons: positive, atomic nucleus Neutrons: no charge, atomic nucleus Electrons: negative, electron cloud P+N = mass of 1 dalton (1 amu) E- mass = 1/200 mass of P/N Atomic number = # of P; defines element Atomic mass = #P + #N E- shell = E- PE Valence shell = outermost; where bonds between e- form Isotopes = 2 atoms of element that differ in N # o C12, C13, C14 Radioactive isotope = decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energy B. Formation of Molecules Incomplete v shell Share/transfer VE w/ other atoms Form chem bonds Energy = capacity to cause change Molecule = compound w/ 2 or more atoms Emergent Prop: Many compounds have diff prop than their elements C. Types of chem bonds Covalent bonds: between atoms; sharing of a pair of VE by 2 atoms; strong bond o Nonpolar: e- shared equally o Polar: e- shared unequally; causes partial charge for each atom or molecule Ionic Bonds: between atoms; one atom steals e- from the other; after transfer, both atoms have charges 9/14/2016 Types of Chem Bonds (continued) Type of bond is determined by diff in electronegativity (ability to draw e- to nucleus) If same/very similar, e- shared equally; non-polar covalent bond If diff <2, e- shared unequally; polar covalent bond If diff > 2, e- captured; ionic bond Water molecules held together w/ hydrogen bonds Polarity allows water molecules to form H bonds w/ each other Asymmetrically distributed e- in molecules or atoms, result in “hot spots” of charge Van der Waals interactions: attractions between molecules III. Emergent Prop of H2O A. H bonds Leads to 4 emergent properties Properties only appear as H2O, not H and O by themselves Cohesive/Adhesive behavior Ability to moderate temperature Expansion upon freezing Versatility as a solvent B. Cohesive Behavior: Surface tension: measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid C. Moderates Temp H2O’s high specific heat can be traced to H bonding 1g takes 1 cal of E to raise 1⁰C This makes H2O a stable environment Body of water absorbs a lot of heat before it gets hot Lot of heat is released before it gets cold Has a high heat of vaporization (heat required to convert 1g to vapor) H20 molecules must have lots of E to break H bonds and escape from surface of liquid Apply a lot of heat to boil water Humans sweat, dogs pant D. Expansion upon freezing Ice floats H bonds in ice are more “ordered,” making ice less dense than water Water reaches greatest density at 4⁰C E. Versatility as a solvent Hydrophilic ions, salts, polar Hydrophobic lipids, non-polar Colloid: stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid Lecture 3: Biological Molecules I. Biological Importance of Carbon Living organism consist mostly of o 70-90% H2O o C-based compounds: organic compounds Organic compounds: C bonded to C or H Organic chem: study of C compounds Four single covalent bonds: tetravalent C chains: skeletons of most organic molecules o Length, branching, double bond position, presence of rings Hydrocarbons: only C and H o Nonpolar and uncharged, hydrophobic, insoluble in H2O o Structure of functional groups is key to molecular function; designated by +R o Any H can be replaced by a functional group change function Structure is key to molecular function o Functional groups = R Functional groups o Hydroxyl (—OH) *May be written HO—* Alcohol (name usually ends in –ol) Polar/hydrophilic because forms H bonds w/ water o Carbonyl: Ketone or aldehyde (CHO); ( >C=O ) Aldehyde (R-CHO): terminal carbonyl grp Ketone: (R-CO-R): internal car grp Polar/hydrophilic because of electronegativity of O o Carboxyl (R-COOH) 2 O’s very close together = very electronegative Polar/hydrophilic H+ (proton) easily released acidic = carboxylic acids Found in amino acids proteins o Amino (R-NH₂) Amines Proton (H+) acceptor base Hydrophilic Amino part of amino acids o Sulfhydryl (R-SH) thiols *May be written HS—* Important in structures of certain proteins 2 –SH groups can react, forming stable “cross-link” Less polar than hydroxyl Stabilize some AA o Phosphate (R-PO₄H₂) organic phosphate Contributes neg charge Acidic, hydrophilic, polar Parts of phospholipids and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) o Methyl (R-CH₃) Nonpolar hydrocarbon, hydrophobic Aids in control of gene expression Shape + function of sex hormones II. Biological Molecules A. Macromolecules Large complex molecules w/ thousands of atoms Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Polymer = molecule made of many similar monomers Enzymes: speed up chem reactions ¾ form polymers o Carbs monomer glucose o Proteins amino acids o Nucleic acids nucleic acid Hydrolysis (“to break with water”): digestion! o Uses water to break down polymers o Regulated by enzyme: hydrolases Dehydration reaction (synthesis): o Synthesizes monomers together o Water removed o Regulated by a specific enzyme: dehydrogenases B. Carbs CH₂O Monomer = sugars (monosaccharides) Glucose C₆H₁₂O₆ Sugars and the polymers of sugars Fuel and building material Monosaccharides CH2O Hydrophilic due to polar hydroxyl/carbonyl groups Classified by location of C=O group and # of C Glucose – most common monosaccharides o Linear and ring form (most typical) o Ring may close in 2 ways giving rise to α and β glucose Disaccharides o Covalent bond is called a glyosidic linkage o Sucrose = glucose + fructose o Note: Lactose + Lactase Polysaccharides = polymers of sugars o Function in living cells Storage: starch, glycogen α-glucose subunits Structural: cellulose, chitin β-glucose subunits o Architecture/function determined by Its sugar monomers Positions of its glyosidic linkages C. Lipids Not true polymers Hydrophobic: mostly hydrocarbons Dissolve in nonpolar solvents, like chloroform 3 important families: Fats, phospholipids, steroids
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