New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Gen Bio 115 Week 2

by: gtan51097

Gen Bio 115 Week 2 01:119:115


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

The notes cover the rest of Lecture 1, plus Lectures 2 and 3
General Biology I
Dr. Gregory Transue
Class Notes
themes, Biology, emergence, emergent, ptoperties, scientific, process, method, Chemistry, Molecules, Macromolecules, Water, Cohesion, carbon, Carbohydrates, Lipids, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, Phosphate, Methyl, Sulfhydryl
25 ?




Popular in General Biology I

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:115 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Gregory Transue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.


Reviews for Gen Bio 115 Week 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12/2016 III. Themes of Biology A. Emergent properties: arrangement and interaction of parts w/in system Emergence: whole is more than sum of its parts  Properties of life emerge at diff levels  Range divided into levels of biological organization B. Unifying themes  Evolution = core theme of bio  unity AND diversity of organisms  Living org are modified descendants of common ancestors  1.8 mil species named, up to 100 mil more  Org of life  patterns  the cells  Structure and function  Heredity  Interaction w/ environment C. Levels of Bio Organization  hierarchy  Atoms  Molecules  Organelles  Cells  Tissues  Organs and Organ Systems  Organisms  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  The Biosphere D. All life is related – LUCA – unity and diversity Divided into three Domains 1) Bacterium 2) Archaea 3) Eukarya Lecture 2: The Scientific Process and Chemistry I. Methods of Investigating Bio  “science”  Latin “to know”  Inquiry: search for natural causes to natural phenomena  Hypothesis: testable explanation for observation based on available data  Theory: Broad explanation w/ significant support  Law: statement of what always occurs under certain circumstances A. The Scientific Process  Observation  Background  Hypothesis + predictions  Experiments + Observations  Evaluation  Incorrect predictions  Revise hypothesis  Repeat experiment  Correct predictions  Repeat and verify  Ask a new question  Endless Cycle! II. Basic Elements of Chemistry  about 25/92 elements essential to life  4 make up 96% of living matter “CHON”  Most of remaining 4%: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur  The rest are trace elements A. Prop of Atoms depend on structure  Each element consists of unique atoms  Protons: positive, atomic nucleus  Neutrons: no charge, atomic nucleus  Electrons: negative, electron cloud  P+N = mass of 1 dalton (1 amu)  E- mass = 1/200 mass of P/N  Atomic number = # of P; defines element  Atomic mass = #P + #N  E- shell = E- PE  Valence shell = outermost; where bonds between e- form  Isotopes = 2 atoms of element that differ in N # o C12, C13, C14  Radioactive isotope = decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energy B. Formation of Molecules  Incomplete v shell  Share/transfer VE w/ other atoms  Form chem bonds  Energy = capacity to cause change  Molecule = compound w/ 2 or more atoms  Emergent Prop: Many compounds have diff prop than their elements C. Types of chem bonds  Covalent bonds: between atoms; sharing of a pair of VE by 2 atoms; strong bond o Nonpolar: e- shared equally o Polar: e- shared unequally; causes partial charge for each atom or molecule  Ionic Bonds: between atoms; one atom steals e- from the other; after transfer, both atoms have charges 9/14/2016 Types of Chem Bonds (continued)  Type of bond is determined by diff in electronegativity (ability to draw e- to nucleus)  If same/very similar, e- shared equally; non-polar covalent bond  If diff <2, e- shared unequally; polar covalent bond  If diff > 2, e- captured; ionic bond  Water molecules held together w/ hydrogen bonds  Polarity allows water molecules to form H bonds w/ each other  Asymmetrically distributed e- in molecules or atoms, result in “hot spots” of charge  Van der Waals interactions: attractions between molecules III. Emergent Prop of H2O A. H bonds  Leads to 4 emergent properties  Properties only appear as H2O, not H and O by themselves  Cohesive/Adhesive behavior  Ability to moderate temperature  Expansion upon freezing  Versatility as a solvent B. Cohesive Behavior:  Surface tension: measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid C. Moderates Temp  H2O’s high specific heat can be traced to H bonding  1g takes 1 cal of E to raise 1⁰C  This makes H2O a stable environment  Body of water absorbs a lot of heat before it gets hot  Lot of heat is released before it gets cold  Has a high heat of vaporization (heat required to convert 1g to vapor)  H20 molecules must have lots of E to break H bonds and escape from surface of liquid  Apply a lot of heat to boil water  Humans sweat, dogs pant D. Expansion upon freezing  Ice floats  H bonds in ice are more “ordered,” making ice less dense than water  Water reaches greatest density at 4⁰C E. Versatility as a solvent  Hydrophilic  ions, salts, polar  Hydrophobic  lipids, non-polar  Colloid: stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid Lecture 3: Biological Molecules I. Biological Importance of Carbon  Living organism consist mostly of o 70-90% H2O o C-based compounds: organic compounds  Organic compounds: C bonded to C or H  Organic chem: study of C compounds  Four single covalent bonds: tetravalent  C chains: skeletons of most organic molecules o Length, branching, double bond position, presence of rings  Hydrocarbons: only C and H o Nonpolar and uncharged, hydrophobic, insoluble in H2O o Structure of functional groups is key to molecular function; designated by +R o Any H can be replaced by a functional group  change function  Structure is key to molecular function o Functional groups = R  Functional groups o Hydroxyl (—OH) *May be written HO—*  Alcohol (name usually ends in –ol)  Polar/hydrophilic because forms H bonds w/ water o Carbonyl: Ketone or aldehyde (CHO); ( >C=O )  Aldehyde (R-CHO): terminal carbonyl grp  Ketone: (R-CO-R): internal car grp  Polar/hydrophilic because of electronegativity of O o Carboxyl (R-COOH)  2 O’s very close together = very electronegative  Polar/hydrophilic  H+ (proton) easily released  acidic = carboxylic acids  Found in amino acids  proteins o Amino (R-NH₂)  Amines  Proton (H+) acceptor  base  Hydrophilic  Amino part of amino acids o Sulfhydryl (R-SH) thiols *May be written HS—*  Important in structures of certain proteins  2 –SH groups can react, forming stable “cross-link”  Less polar than hydroxyl  Stabilize some AA o Phosphate (R-PO₄H₂) organic phosphate  Contributes neg charge  Acidic, hydrophilic, polar  Parts of phospholipids and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) o Methyl (R-CH₃)  Nonpolar hydrocarbon, hydrophobic  Aids in control of gene expression  Shape + function of sex hormones II. Biological Molecules A. Macromolecules  Large complex molecules w/ thousands of atoms  Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids  Polymer = molecule made of many similar monomers  Enzymes: speed up chem reactions  ¾ form polymers o Carbs monomer  glucose o Proteins  amino acids o Nucleic acids  nucleic acid  Hydrolysis (“to break with water”): digestion! o Uses water to break down polymers o Regulated by enzyme: hydrolases  Dehydration reaction (synthesis): o Synthesizes monomers together o Water removed o Regulated by a specific enzyme: dehydrogenases B. Carbs  CH₂O  Monomer = sugars (monosaccharides)  Glucose C₆H₁₂O₆  Sugars and the polymers of sugars  Fuel and building material  Monosaccharides CH2O  Hydrophilic  due to polar hydroxyl/carbonyl groups  Classified by location of C=O group and # of C  Glucose – most common monosaccharides o Linear and ring form (most typical) o Ring may close in 2 ways giving rise to α and β glucose  Disaccharides o Covalent bond is called a glyosidic linkage o Sucrose = glucose + fructose o Note: Lactose + Lactase  Polysaccharides = polymers of sugars o Function in living cells  Storage: starch, glycogen α-glucose subunits  Structural: cellulose, chitin β-glucose subunits o Architecture/function determined by  Its sugar monomers  Positions of its glyosidic linkages C. Lipids  Not true polymers  Hydrophobic: mostly hydrocarbons  Dissolve in nonpolar solvents, like chloroform  3 important families: Fats, phospholipids, steroids


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.