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Week 2 , Chapter 2: Research Methods

by: rachel kelliher

Week 2 , Chapter 2: Research Methods 1004

rachel kelliher
Virginia Tech

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The lecture notes for chapter 2: Research methods
Introduction to Psychology
Benjamin DeVore
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by rachel kelliher on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
[PP 2: Research Methods: 8/30/2016] ~Review  Know o Mind body controversy o Pysch not able to study the soul- so not a science but a localized issue  Special circuits in the brain do different parts but parts are integrated together ~Psychology as a science  How do we explain behavior? o Can look at most common method of explaining science in general: reification  Reification= explaining things by giving it a label o Level of explanation  Psych compared to other sciences:  Original model: start with psych definition, then turn to bio for explanation o Problems  Who would explain physics?- can no longer look to physics for an absolute explanation  Revolutions in physics: Newton and the apple tree  Einstein- principle of relativity o “God does not play dice”- believed that physics was still absolute  Heisenberg: uncertainty principle o No matter how great of scientist we are, we are always uncertain o Reduces explanation in physics to the level of explanation of other sciences o Parts 1. Can only speak certainty only about what we have observed 2. The very act of observing changes that which is observed o Random: right frontal lobe is what controls social behavior- if something is wrong with it then they won’t behave socially correct- will do things  Research terms o Factual statements  Ex:  class performance on exam may be low o Arousal level effects performance on exam  Temperature: the hotter it gets, the more you want to kill someone o In baseball pitchers hit batters more often as the temperature increases o HOWEVER temp will eventually get so hot that you will just want to “kill them tomorrow” o Empirical laws: performance is related to arousal level (anxiety)  The Yerkes-Dodson law: regards of what we are looking at your behavior/ arousal level is related in an inverted U fashion  Your performance will improve until you hit the optimal level POST optimal level: performance goes down o Arousal theory: single most important theory in psych  Two parts of the brain  Brain steam contains reticular activating system- place that all info passes through  If stimuli= arousal provoking- you will wake up/ be aroused  Why do we study behavior? o Case history:  Relay on self report of patient to figure why things are the way they are- why the patient now behaves this manner  Retrospective reconstruction  Most famous person= Sigmund Freud and “Anno O”  Anno O women that he diagnosed with wondering uterus disorder- hysteria o Single subject experience  The only design that allows a pysch to make a correlative statement= experiment  2 types of designs  ABAB reversal design o Ex) self- abusive behavior  Set up:  A phase) take off the restraints and see how many times that she hurts herself  B phase) Naltrexone o In this experiment the abusive behavior stopped BUT could not conclude that the treatment did it- too many confounding variables  Second A phase) behavior returned to normal- abusive  Second B) behavior stopped again o Set up:  A phase) need to get a baseline of normal behavior  B phase) treatment  A phase) stop treatment- return to baseline  B) phase treatment again o The more AB switches you do, with the same results, the easier it is to conclude that the treatment was effective  Side note: people with right brain problems don’t realize that something is wrong- they don’t know why they need to get treatment  Multiple base line design o Need to ID baselines  Need to try one at a time, as effectively as you can  Treatment that produces results for the 1 behavior that is being treated at the moment= good= effective o Test method: aptitude tests  Ex) SAT, ACT, intelligence and achievement test  Aptitude test: a test designed to determine a person's ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge. o Survey method:  Ex) US census o Observational method:  Jane Goodall: Apes in Africa  Masters and Johnson: Sexual Behavior  Correlational method o Allows predictions of one variable from the level of another variable  Trying to predict the level of one variable based off the other  EX)  desire for ice cream and temperature: desire goes up with increase in temp  VT football: water would be gone anytime that VT was on TV: people were finally watching the game and the only time that people were going to the bathroom was during TV commercials o DOES NOT ALLOW YOU TO PERMIT CASUALITY o DOES ALLOW YOU TO PREDICT LINEAR REALTHIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 2 VARIABLES o Coefficient of determination  Allows magnitude comparison  Ie: r.=7 vs r=.5 o Correlations represented by Person R: R  Measured from 0-> 1.00  Can be positive or negative  +1.00 OR -1.00: ARE PREFECT  Experimental methods o Experiment must…  Manipulate a variable: IV  Measure a variable: DV  Allow causality inference  Have control groups


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