chapter 3: Biological/ Neuroscience
chapter 3: Biological/ Neuroscience 1004
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by rachel kelliher on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Brain stem Cerebellum [PP3: Bio bases- 9/1/2016] ~Neuron Basic unit of the nervous system With stain Ramon y Cajal was able to ID individual neurons o Discovery allowed people to study- basis of neurological pysch o Called glial cells mother cells o Came up with the neuronal doctrine 86.1 billion in the human brain Length: varies depending on species- human 1.5 ft Able to make a decision and then send an AP that carries out that action/ decision in another tissue in another part of the body o Tissue can be another neuron (Which will then pass the message on) or to a muscle, organ, etc Structure Red little lines off the dendrites= spines- receptors: allow synapses to occur The more spines- the more intelligent the neuron aluminumin CANS, can kill dendrites which can cause alzhimers axon hillock- determines if stimuli is strong enough to release Na-> AP AP travels down axon to axon buttons Axon buttons release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft/ gap Once we discovered structure and function of neurons job became to figure out how they work o Two types of ways that neurons communicate Graded potentials- vary in the mag Excitatory (+)- EPSP- depolarize cell o Messages that tell you, you have to pee! Inhibitory (-)= IPSP- hyperpolarize the cell- increase polarity o You can’t go right now!- you are in class! Action potential: all or none Fires as soon as threshold is reached by EPSP “No half ass firing”-cell sends the message Axon membrane o Cations are on the outside- Salt o Anions are in the inside- Potassium When AP is sent Na-K pumps open: salt moves inside of the cell and the K leaves the cell o Resting potential= -70 mV Test question: What is responsible for maintaining a rest potential?: K-NA pump o Threshold= -55 mV o During AP: NA enters: mV sky rockets: extreme depolarization: EPSP Point that Na enters K leaves cell: drops all the way below -70 : extreme repolarization- hyperpolarize: IPSP Test question: what is responsible for restoring cell to resting state so that another AP can be generated? K LEAVING Potential= voltage= chance for electrical charge o Psychopharmacology= manipulation of the cell o When it comes to neurons and figuring out how they work there use to be a huge question: Neurons don’t physically have a connection- how does commination work? Synapses between each neuron; the ?= how does info cross the gap? Ideas o Goubers: something is sent across the gap Right- neurotransmitters= chemical messengers with electrical props o Sparks: electrical message Otto Loewi discovered Vagusstoff- answered the question Knew that you could restart the heart if it stopped Knew if you stimulate vagus nerve the heart would stop. Discovered first neurotransmitter- acetylcholine Vagusstoff= stuff from the vagus nerve= ACh o Neurotransmitters; NS= on off system- neurotransmitters can turn functions on and off Acetylcholine) ACh- turns on muscles- causes muscular contraction AChE- enzyme that stops contractions Vitamin B= critical to and AChE and ACh units: ACh= vitamin B complex AChE and ACh receptors are always found together o Drugs also turn NS on and off Can alter: storage, release, reuptake, block receptor sites, stimulate receptor sites, other mechanisms of the NS Types of drugs: Curare: blocks ACh receptors on muscles scopolamine: blocks ACh receptors on brain atropine: blocks ACh receptors on glands Botulism: blocks ACh release Nerve gas: blocks AChE- body can’t relax o DEP- gas that CANNOT Be used in war o Other NT: Dopamine (Da): primarily located in L. Brain Associated with award circuits/ award basis of life Associated with depression, laziness ( low energy level) norepinephrine (NE): effects mood higher level= improves mood serotonin: impacts mood lower levels in people who successfully commit suicide number on NT for treating depression in US- especially in women higher levels= better sleep endorphins/ neuropeptides: naturally occurring opioid structures that the body produces ~The brain- how it works and disorders Structure o Right vs left brain Left brain: language, serial processing, social approach, positive emotion, PNS Controls the right side of the body Controls the body: “All about keeping track of body parts” o Personal space, and proprioception of body Self aware part of the brain- critical of self Right brain: spatial ( faces, places, prosody), parallel processing, social avoidance, negative emotion, SNS “generally does not like to be around people- being alone, not a lot of talking- generally socially avoidant” Deals with intense emotions- anger, sadness, fear, disgust o Emotions typically associated with SNS- needed for a fight Does one emotion: happiness Worldly side- blames society for problems World side- extra personal space: awareness of environment Balance theory- when things are going well between the right and left brain- things they aren’t fighting each other The right and left brain are 2 distinctively different brains: control different things and can contradict each other May or may not be in balance with each other o Lobes Frontal lobe Jobs/control o Personality attributes Decreases will lead to laziness o Emotional expression Left= positive and right= negative o Preservation/ inertia Difficulty with stopping or starting when there is damage Left= speech and right= spatial Speech= stuttering Spatial= hard time mowing the lawn- couldn’t stay in his own law o Rules and regulations Right= social pragmatics+ anarchy Problems with socially acceptable behavior and social+ emotional skills Left= logic- following rules of logic (School related laws) o Abstract reasoning o Motor control: strength+ dexterity o Expresses speech o Distractibility Executive functions=frontal lobe functions: o Specialized for organizing, planning, sequencing, and regulatory control/ functions “the executive system” Controls organization, planning, sequencing and regulatory control… Left A: speech output- fluent& stuttering Right A: emotional output- libel, anger, sad, fear Back of the brain: Temporal, occipital and parietal lobes “general rule of thumb; every sensory modality goes to the back of the brain” o Vision, audition, taste, body sensation Where difficulty with receiving or comprehending info occurs o Temporal= auditory sounds/ speech o Left side: lang. comprehension o Right: emotional comprehension Not able to recognize facial/ tone cues when it comes to anger. Sad, fear Occipital) vision o Letter and number recognition o Line orientation & face recognition o Cortical blindness: the total or partial loss of vision in a normal- appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex. Cortical blindness can be acquired or congenital, and may also be transient in certain instances. Parietal Lobes) o Left hemisphere Body awareness- “where is your nose” Left right awareness Relational thought Arithmetical operations o Right hemisphere Neglect Dressing apraxia: inability to dress oneself. Apraxia: inability to perform particular purposive actions, as a result of brain damage. Constructional apraxia Draw a house. Draw a flower Anosognosia- awareness of deficits Temporal) o Learning and memory H.M Korsakoff’s psychosis Anterograde Amnesia o Speech compression Left= linguistics Right= prosody (the patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry.)+ music comprehension o Emotion o Wernicke’s area= comprehension of speech o ?: which activity is going on when the base of the left frontal lobe goes off? A: generating speech- Broca’s area Listening Broca’s area Compressio wernicke'sa rea n of speech o o Corpus callosum The connection between the right and left brain Problems with the connection between the 2 sides= split brain o Split brain patients- one side of the brain will hurt the other side of the brain o Tests My mom just died- logically sad (what left brain will say) right brain listens too tone- so if you say it happily, right brain will think that you are happy Draw a flower: no, I don’t draw- writes the world instead- the left brain Write a setnace about a man and a car- the right brain will draw picutres not write His patients. Alien arm patients: left hand trying to kill wife and the right hand was trying to safe her- had a butterfly tumor o Butterfly tumor- eats up CC and looks like a butterfly o Left brain wanted to save her and the right brain (Which controls anger) wanted to kill her Less connection in children with autism Agenesis of the corpus callosum: rare birth defect- which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum Test question: right brain sees the spoon (on the left side of the table) Tests o MRI- looks/ uses lesions o Real time learning: does not require lesions to do test PET fMRI strokes: common reactions o left side) catastrophic reaction- GET ME HELP! Something is wrong with me aware of problems with self “I have problems” o Right side) These symptoms of stroke are Indifference common in general dysfunctions Unaware of problems with self of the lobes “others are the problem” o Strokes overview Cause damage-> loss of brain cells Less activation (impaired): strength, body senses, vision, hearing More activation: see, hear, feel, seeing things that aren’t there Right brain- hear/ see scary things: involve feelings of being to forced to do something that you don’t want to do S&S: numbness, tingling, paralysis Topographical arrangement o La metre- brain is like a machine o Different things/ sensations go to different parts of the brain “cables” from sensors to muscles: vision, audition, body sensation, motor control (strength) o Logically arranged o Projection areas: four lobes where sensory processing occurs Motor= frontal, somatosensory= parietal, auditory= temporal, visual= occipital o Precise topographical representation ~Know Hippocampus response for learning- uses ACh to learn: why ACh blockers impair learning